Exarch

Apostolic ExarchateApostolic ExarchPatriarchal ExarchatePatriarchal ExarchAuxiliary ExarchList of Eastern Catholic exarchatesArchiepiscopal ExarchArchiepiscopal ExarchateexarchatesCoadjutor Apostolic Exarch
The term exarch comes from the Ancient Greek ἔξαρχος, exarchos, and designates holders of various historical offices, some of them being political or military and others being ecclesiastical.wikipedia
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Theme (Byzantine district)

themethemathemes
The Exarchates were a response to weakening imperial authority in the provinces and were part of the overall process of unification of civil and military offices, initiated in early form by Justinian I, which would lead eventually to the creation of the Thematic system by either the Emperor Heraclius or Constans II.
582–602) combined supreme civil and military authority in the person of an exarch, forming the exarchates of Ravenna and Africa.

Exarchate of Ravenna

Exarch of RavennaRavennaExarch
The exarchate's seat was at Ravenna, whence it is known as the "Exarchate of Ravenna".
The Exarchate of Ravenna or of Italy (Exarchatus Ravennatis) was a lordship of the Eastern Roman Empire today referred to by some as the Byzantine Empire in Italy, from 584 to 751, when the last exarch was put to death by the Lombards.

Heraclius

Emperor HeracliusHeraclius IHeraclius the Younger
The Exarchates were a response to weakening imperial authority in the provinces and were part of the overall process of unification of civil and military offices, initiated in early form by Justinian I, which would lead eventually to the creation of the Thematic system by either the Emperor Heraclius or Constans II.
After the war, Maurice appointed Heraclius the Elder to the position of Exarch of Africa.

Exarchate of Africa

Exarch of AfricaAfricaExarchate of Carthage
The capital of the Exarchate of Africa was Carthage.
Ruled by an exarch (viceroy) it was established by the Emperor Maurice in the late 580s and survived until the Muslim conquest of the Maghreb in the late 7th century.

Constantinople

ConstantinopolitanConstantinopolisConstantinopole
In Greek texts the Latin title is spelled 'Bicarios.' The office of exarch as a governor with extended political and military authority was later created in Byzantine Empire, with jurisdiction over a particular territory, usually a frontier region at some distance from the capital Constantinople.
Heraclius, son of the exarch of Africa, set sail for the city and assumed the throne.

Vicarius

vicarvicariiVicars
From the end of 3rd century or early 4th, every Roman diocese was governed by vicarius who was titled "exarch" in eastern parts of the Empire where the Greek language and the use of Greek terminology dominated, even though Latin was the language of the imperial administration from the provincial level up until the 440s (Greek translations were sent out with the official Latin text).
In the eastern parts of the Empire, dominated by Greek language and common use of Greek terminology, vicarius was called exarch.

Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople

Patriarchate of ConstantinopleChurch of ConstantinopleEcumenical Patriarchate
The Orthodox Church in Bulgaria had now become independent of the Greek-dominated Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople.
With the development of the hierarchical structure of the Church, the bishop of Constantinople came to be styled as exarch (a position superior to metropolitan).

Ravenna

Ravenna, ItalyCastiglione di RavennaRavennese
The exarchate's seat was at Ravenna, whence it is known as the "Exarchate of Ravenna".
Following the conquests of Belisarius for the Emperor Justinian I in the 6th century, Ravenna became the seat of the Byzantine governor of Italy, the Exarch, and was known as the Exarchate of Ravenna.

Lombards

LombardLongobardsLongobard
In Italy the Lombards were the main opposition to Byzantine power.
Longinus, the Exarch sent to Italy by Emperor Justin II, could only defend coastal cities that could be supplied by the powerful Byzantine fleet.

Roman diocese

diocesediocesescivil diocese
From the end of 3rd century or early 4th, every Roman diocese was governed by vicarius who was titled "exarch" in eastern parts of the Empire where the Greek language and the use of Greek terminology dominated, even though Latin was the language of the imperial administration from the provincial level up until the 440s (Greek translations were sent out with the official Latin text).
In the eastern parts of Roman Empire, dominated by the Greek language and common use of Greek terminology, the vicarius was titled exarch.

Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate)

Ukrainian Orthodox ChurchUOC-MPUkrainian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate
In 1921, eparchies of the Russian Orthodox Church in Ukraine were reorganized as Ukrainian Exarchate of the Russian Orthodox Church, headed by patriarchal exarch with seat in Kiev.
In 1620, the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople Cyril Lucaris reestablished Orthodox dioceses for the Orthodox population of what was then the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth — under the Metropolitan of Kyiv, Galicia, and all Russia Job Boretsky as the Patriarchal Exarch.

Apostolic vicariate

Vicar ApostolicApostolic VicarVicariate Apostolic
In the Eastern Christian Churches (Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Eastern Catholic), the term exarch has three distinct uses: metropolitan who holds the office of exarch is the deputy of a patriarch and holds authority over bishops of the designated ecclesiastical region (thus, a position between that of patriarch and regular metropolitan); or, an auxiliary or titular bishop appointed to be exarch over a group of the faithful not yet large enough or organized enough to be constituted an eparchy or diocese (thus the equivalent of a vicar apostolic); and, a priest or deacon who is appointed by a bishop as his executive representative in various fields of diocesan administration (in the Byzantine Empire, executive exarchs were usually collecting diocesan revenues for local bishops). However, the ecclesiastical title of Exarch has disappeared in the Western Catholic Church, being replaced by the terms "Primate" (ranking above Metropolitan Archbishop) and "Apostolic Vicar" (ranking below Suffragan Bishop).
See also apostolic exarch for an Eastern Catholic counterpart.

Primate (bishop)

PrimatePrimate of Swedenprimates
However, the ecclesiastical title of Exarch has disappeared in the Western Catholic Church, being replaced by the terms "Primate" (ranking above Metropolitan Archbishop) and "Apostolic Vicar" (ranking below Suffragan Bishop).
The closest equivalent position in the Eastern Churches in 1911 was an Exarch.

Melkite Greek Catholic Apostolic Exarchate of Argentina

Argentina of the Greek-MelkitesMelkite Catholic Apostolic Exarchate of ArgentinaMelkite Apostolic Exarchate of Argentina
Melkite Greek Catholic Apostolic Exarchate of Argentina is an Apostolic Exarchate (missionary pre-diocesan jurisdiction) of the Melkite Greek Catholic Church covering all of Argentina for its Byzantine Rite.

Melkite Greek Catholic Apostolic Exarchate of Venezuela

Melkite Catholic Apostolic Exarchate of Venezuela
Melkite (Greek) Catholic Apostolic Exarchate of Venezuela (in Latin: Exarchatus Apostolicus Caracensis Graecorum Melkitarum, meaning - of Caracas) is an exarchate (missionary pre-diocesan jurisdiction) of the Melkite Greek Catholic Church, a Greek language Byzantine Rite Eastern Catholic church in communion with other Catholic Churches.

Russian Catholic Apostolic Exarchate of Harbin

Russian Apostolic Exarchate of HarbinEAstern Catholic Apostolic ExarchHarbin
The Russian Catholic Apostolic Exarchate of Harbin (or Harbin 哈爾濱 of the Russians) is a dormant apostolic exarchate of the Russian Byzantine Catholic Church based in the city of Harbin in China.

Georgian Orthodox Church

Georgian OrthodoxGeorgianEastern Orthodox Church
After imperial Russia annexed Georgia (eastern part in 1801, and western part in 1810), the ancient Georgian Orthodox Church (autocephalous since 750, whose head was since 1008 styled Catholicos-Patriarchs) was reorganized into Georgian Exarchate, and the newly appointed Exarch of Georgia (since 1817 always an ethnic Russian) sat in the Russian Holy Synod at St. Petersburg.
From 1817, the metropolitan bishop, or exarch, in charge of the Church was an ethnic Russian, with no knowledge of the Georgian language and culture.

Ukrainian Catholic Apostolic Exarchate of Germany and Scandinavia

Apostolic Exarchate in Germany and Scandinavia for the UkrainiansUkrainian Catholic Apostolic Exarchate in Germany and ScandinaviaGermany and Scandinavia of the Ukrainians
The Ukrainian (Greek) Catholic Apostolic Exarchate in Germany and Scandinavia (Apostolisches Exarchat für Deutschland und Skandinavien Exarchatus Apostolicus Germaniae et Scandiae) (Germany and Scandinavia for the Ukrainians) is an Apostolic Exarchate (pre-diocesan jurisdiction) of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church covers ist faithful in Germany and the Nordic countries Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden.

Ukrainian Catholic Apostolic Exarchate of Italy

The Ukrainian Catholic Apostolic Exarchate of Italy (Exarchatus Apostolicus Italiae Ucrainorum) is an Apostolic Exarchate (pre-diocesan jurisdiction) of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church covers its faithful in Italy.

Metropolitan bishop

MetropolitanMetropolitan Archbishopmetropolitans
In the Eastern Christian Churches (Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Eastern Catholic), the term exarch has three distinct uses: metropolitan who holds the office of exarch is the deputy of a patriarch and holds authority over bishops of the designated ecclesiastical region (thus, a position between that of patriarch and regular metropolitan); or, an auxiliary or titular bishop appointed to be exarch over a group of the faithful not yet large enough or organized enough to be constituted an eparchy or diocese (thus the equivalent of a vicar apostolic); and, a priest or deacon who is appointed by a bishop as his executive representative in various fields of diocesan administration (in the Byzantine Empire, executive exarchs were usually collecting diocesan revenues for local bishops).

Syriac Catholic Apostolic Exarchate of Canada

Syriac Catholic Apostolic Exarchate for CanadaSyrian Catholic Apostolic Exarchate for CanadaCanada
The Syriac Catholic Apostolic Exarchate of Canada (informally Canada of the Syriacs) is an Apostolic exarchate (Eastern Catholic missionary pre-diocesan jurisdiction) of the Syriac Catholic Church sui iuris (West Syriac Rite in Syriac language) covering Canada.

Syriac Catholic Apostolic Exarchate of Venezuela

Syriac Catholic Apostolic Exarchate for VenezuelaSyrian Catholic Apostolic Exarchate of VenezuelaVenezuela of the Syrians
The Syriac Catholic Apostolic Exarchate of Venezuela is an exarchate (missionary pre-diocesan jurisdiction) of the Syriac Catholic Church, a Patriarchal Eastern Catholic church in communion with other Catholic Churches which uses the Antiochian Rite in Syriac language.

Bulgarian Catholic Apostolic Exarchate of Sofia

SofiaApostolic Exarch of SofiaApostolic Exarchate of Sofia
As Apostolic exarchate (a pre-diocesan type of missionary jurisdiction for Eastern Catholics ?entitled to a titular bishop) it is exempt, i.e. directly dependent on the Holy See (notably the Roman Congregation for the Oriental Churches), not part of any ecclesiastical province.

Catholic particular churches and liturgical rites

particular churchparticular churchesrite
Apostolic exarch is usually a consecrated bishop of a titular see to whom the Pope, as Bishop of the Roman See of the Apostle Peter, has entrusted the pastoral care of the faithful of an autonomous Eastern Catholic particular Church sui iuris in an area, not raised to the rank of eparchy (diocese), that is situated outside the home territory of an Eastern Catholic Church.

Melkite Greek Catholic Patriarchal Exarchate of Iraq

Melkite Catholic Patriarchal Exarchate of IraqIraqIraq of the Greek-Melkites
Melkite (Greek) Catholic Patriarchal Exarchate of Iraq (informally Iraq of the (Greek-)Melkites) is a Patriarchal exarchate (Eastern Catholic pre-diocesan missionary jurisdiction) of the Melkite Greek Catholic Church sui iuris (Byzantine Rite in Greek language for part of Iraq.