Exarchate of Africa

Exarch of AfricaAfricaExarchate of CarthageExarch of CarthageByzantineByzantine North AfricaNorth AfricaCarthageexarchExarchate
The Exarchate of Africa was a division of the Byzantine Empire centered at Carthage, Tunisia, which encompassed its possessions on the Western Mediterranean.wikipedia
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Exarchate of Ravenna

Exarch of RavennaRavennaExarch
It was one of two exarchates established following the western reconquests under Emperor Justinian I to more effectively administer the territories, along with the Exarchate of Ravenna.
It was one of two exarchates established following the western reconquests under Emperor Justinian to more effectively administer the territories, along with the Exarchate of Africa.

Exarch

Apostolic ExarchateApostolic ExarchPatriarchal Exarchate
Ruled by an exarch (viceroy) it was established by the Emperor Maurice in the late 580s and survived until the Muslim conquest of the Maghreb in the late 7th century.
The capital of the Exarchate of Africa was Carthage.

Muslim conquest of the Maghreb

Umayyad conquest of North AfricaMuslim conquest of North AfricaNorth Africa
Ruled by an exarch (viceroy) it was established by the Emperor Maurice in the late 580s and survived until the Muslim conquest of the Maghreb in the late 7th century.
20,000 Arabs marched from Medina in the Arabian Peninsula, another 20,000 joined them in Memphis, Egypt, and Abdallah ibn Sa'd led them into the Byzantine Exarchate of Africa.

Praetorian prefecture of Africa

AfricaPraetorian Prefect of AfricaThe Moorish Wars
527 – 565)) organized the recovered territories as the Praetorian prefecture of Africa, which included the provinces of Africa Proconsularis, Byzacena, Tripolitania, Numidia, Mauretania Caesariensis and Mauretania Sitifensis, and was centered at Carthage.
It continued to exist until the late 580s, when it was replaced by the Exarchate of Africa.

Africa (Roman province)

AfricaAfrica ProconsularisRoman North Africa
527 – 565)) organized the recovered territories as the Praetorian prefecture of Africa, which included the provinces of Africa Proconsularis, Byzacena, Tripolitania, Numidia, Mauretania Caesariensis and Mauretania Sitifensis, and was centered at Carthage.
The northwest African provinces, together with the Roman possessions in Spain, were grouped into the Exarchate of Africa by Emperor Maurice.

Balearic Islands

BalearicBalearicsBalearic island
In the Vandalic War of 533 Byzantine forces under Belisarius reconquered the Maghreb along with Corsica and Sardinia and the Balearic Islands.
Imperial power receded precipitately in the western Mediterranean after the fall of Carthage and the Exarchate of Africa to the Umayyad Caliphate in 698, and in 707 the islands submitted to the terms of an Umayyad fleet, which allowed the residents to maintain their traditions and religion as well as a high degree of autonomy.

Carthage

CarthaginianCarthaginiansCarthago
527 – 565)) organized the recovered territories as the Praetorian prefecture of Africa, which included the provinces of Africa Proconsularis, Byzacena, Tripolitania, Numidia, Mauretania Caesariensis and Mauretania Sitifensis, and was centered at Carthage. The Exarchate of Africa was a division of the Byzantine Empire centered at Carthage, Tunisia, which encompassed its possessions on the Western Mediterranean.
The Roman Exarchate of Africa was not able to withstand the seventh-century Muslim conquest of the Maghreb.

Byzantine Empire under the Heraclian dynasty

Heraclian DynastyHeraclianByzantium under the Heraclian
The Heraclian dynasty (610-711) did continue to appoint some competent eastern officers to African posts, such as the Armenian Narseh, who commanded Tripoli, and John, the dux of Tigisis.
The Heraclian dynasty was named after the general Heraclius the Younger, who, in 610, sailed from Carthage, overthrew the usurper Phocas, and was crowned Emperor.

Maghreb

Northwest AfricaMaghribNorth Africa
In the Vandalic War of 533 Byzantine forces under Belisarius reconquered the Maghreb along with Corsica and Sardinia and the Balearic Islands.
A century later, the Byzantine emperor Justinian I sent a force under General Belisarius that succeeded in destroying the Vandal Kingdom, with Byzantine rule lasting for 150 years.

Heraclius the Elder

Heraclius
After the death of Justinian in 565, the Eastern Roman Empire came increasingly under attack on all fronts, and Emperors often left the remoter provinces to themselves to cope as best they could for extended periods, although military officers, such as Heraclius the Elder (Exarch c. During the successful revolt of the exarch of Carthage, Heraclius the Elder, and his namesake son Heraclius in 608, the Berbers comprised a large portion of the fleet that transported Heraclius to Constantinople.
In circa 600, he was appointed as the Exarch of Africa and in 608, Heraclius the Elder rebelled with his son against the usurper Phocas (r.

Mauretania Caesariensis

MauretaniaMauritania CaesariensisNovica
527 – 565)) organized the recovered territories as the Praetorian prefecture of Africa, which included the provinces of Africa Proconsularis, Byzacena, Tripolitania, Numidia, Mauretania Caesariensis and Mauretania Sitifensis, and was centered at Carthage.
In the late 580s, under the emperor Maurice, all of the Maghreb was granted to the Exarchate of Africa, and Mauretania Caesariensis became part of a new province, Mauretania Prima.

Maurice (emperor)

MauriceEmperor MauriceMaurikios
Ruled by an exarch (viceroy) it was established by the Emperor Maurice in the late 580s and survived until the Muslim conquest of the Maghreb in the late 7th century. Capitalizing upon this precedent and taking it one step further, the emperor Maurice sometime between 585 and 590 created the office of exarch, which combined the supreme civil authority of a praetorian prefect and the military authority of a magister militum, and enjoyed considerable autonomy from Constantinople.
With the creation of the Exarchate of Africa in 590 he further solidified the power of Constantinople in the western Mediterranean.

Magister militum

magister peditummagister militum per Orientemmagistri militum
Capitalizing upon this precedent and taking it one step further, the emperor Maurice sometime between 585 and 590 created the office of exarch, which combined the supreme civil authority of a praetorian prefect and the military authority of a magister militum, and enjoyed considerable autonomy from Constantinople.
In the establishment of the exarchates of Ravenna and Carthage in 584, this practice found its first permanent expression.

Heraclius

Emperor HeracliusHeraclius IHeraclius the Younger
During the successful revolt of the exarch of Carthage, Heraclius the Elder, and his namesake son Heraclius in 608, the Berbers comprised a large portion of the fleet that transported Heraclius to Constantinople.
His rise to power began in 608, when he and his father, Heraclius the Elder, the exarch of Africa, led a revolt against the unpopular usurper Phocas.

Gennadius (6th century)

Gennadius6th-century predecessor
The first African exarch was the patricius Gennadius.
Gennadius was an East Roman (Byzantine) general and the first exarch of Africa.

Gregory the Patrician

GregoryCount GregoryExarch Gregory
Due to religious and political ambitions, the Exarch Gregory the Patrician (who was related by blood to the imperial family, through the emperor's cousin Nicetas) declared himself independent of Constantinople in 647.
Gregory the Patrician (Γρηγόριος, Flavius Gregorius, died 647) was a Byzantine Exarch of Africa (modern Tunisia and eastern Algeria).

Nicetas (cousin of Heraclius)

NicetasNiketasGeneral Nicetas
Due to religious and political ambitions, the Exarch Gregory the Patrician (who was related by blood to the imperial family, through the emperor's cousin Nicetas) declared himself independent of Constantinople in 647.
618/619. He disappears from the sources thereafter, but possibly served as Exarch of Africa until his death.

Battle of Sufetula

battleensuing battleSufetula, Battle of
At this time the influence and power of the exarchate was exemplified in the forces gathered by Gregory in the battle of Sufetula also in that year where more than 100,000 men of Amazigh origin fought for Gregory.
The Battle of Sufetula took place in 647 between the Arab Muslim forces of the Rashidun Caliphate and the Byzantine Exarchate of Africa.

Walter Kaegi

Walter Emil Kaegi
Walter Kaegi speculates that some Armenian officers might have asked to transfer back to the east to defend their homes as the Muslims advanced into Armenia, but the sources are silent.
Kaegi is also distinguished for analyzing the Late Roman period in European and Mediterranean context, and has written extensively on Roman, Vandal, Byzantine and Muslim occupation of North Africa.

Gennadius (7th century)

GennadiusGennadios
Afterwards, the exarchate became a semi-client state under a new exarch called Gennadius.
665), sometimes referred to as Gennadius II (his 6th-century predecessor being Gennadius I), was a Byzantine general who exercised the role of Exarch of Africa from 648 to 665.

Barca (ancient city)

BarcaBarceBarqa
Sensing Roman weakness they conquered Barca, in Cyrenaica, then moved on to Tripolitania, where they encountered resistance.
Barce was part of the Exarchate of Africa until it was conquered by the Arabs in 643–644 during the Islamic conquest of North Africa.

Battle of Vescera

ambushedVescera, Battle of
The exarchate scored a major victory over the forces of Uqba ibn Nafi at the Battle of Vescera in 682, aided by the Berber king, Kusaila.
The Battle of Vescera (modern Biskra in Algeria) was fought in 682 or 683 between the Berbers of king Caecilius and their Byzantine allies from the Exarchate of Carthage against an Umayyad Arab army under Uqba ibn Nafi (the founder of Kairouan).

Kusaila

KusaylaKasilaCaecilius
The exarchate scored a major victory over the forces of Uqba ibn Nafi at the Battle of Vescera in 682, aided by the Berber king, Kusaila.
Initially the Berber States were able to defeat the Umayyad invaders at the Battle of Vescera (modern Biskra in Algeria), that was fought in 682 AD between the Imazighen of King Caecilius and their Byzantine allies from the Exarchate of Africa against an Umayyad army under Uqba ibn Nafi, the founder of Kairouan.

Julian, Count of Ceuta

Count JulianJulianCount Julian of Ceuta
Julian was a count, the "Commander of Septem" (present-day Ceuta), and according to some scholars, possibly the last Byzantine Exarch of Africa.

Eleutherios the Younger

Eleutherios
Eleutherios the Younger was a Byzantine official who overthrew Gennadios and possibly succeeded him as Exarch of Africa.