Excommunication

excommunicatedexcommunicateexcommunicatingexcommunicatesdisfellowshippeddisfellowshipexcommunicantanathematizedexcommunicationsexpelled
Excommunication is an institutional act of religious censure used to end or at least regulate the communion of a member of a congregation with other members of the religious institution who are in normal communion with each other.wikipedia
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Shunning

shunnedshunban
The term is often historically used to refer specifically to excommunications from the Catholic Church, but it is also used more generally to refer to similar types of institutional religious exclusionary practices and shunning among other religious groups.
It differs from, but may be associated with, excommunication.

Amish

Old Order AmishAmish CommunityThe Amish
The Amish have also been known to excommunicate members that were either seen or known for breaking rules, or questioning the church.
In addition to excommunication, members may be shunned, a practice that limits social contacts to shame the wayward member into returning to the church.

Protestantism

ProtestantProtestantsProtestant church
For instance, many Protestant denominations, such as the Lutheran Churches, have similar practices of excusing congregants from church communities, while Jehovah's Witnesses, as well as the Churches of Christ, use the term "disfellowship" to refer to their form of excommunication.
He was excommunicated and burned at the stake in Constance, Bishopric of Constance in 1415 by secular authorities for unrepentant and persistent heresy.

Heresy

hereticalhereticheretics
In certain historical Christian, Muslim and Jewish cultures, among others, espousing ideas deemed heretical has been and in some cases still is met with censure ranging from excommunication to the death penalty.

Apostasy

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Excommunication is generally reserved for what are seen as the most serious sins, including committing serious crimes such as murder, child abuse, and incest; committing adultery; involvement in or teaching of polygamy; involvement in homosexual conduct; apostasy; participation in an abortion; teaching false doctrine; or openly criticizing church leaders.
Such punishments may include shunning, excommunication, verbal abuse, physical violence or even execution.

Schism

schismaticsplinter groupschisms
In the Catholic Church, excommunication is normally resolved by a declaration of repentance, profession of the Creed (if the offense involved heresy) and an Act of Faith, or renewal of obedience (if that was a relevant part of the offending act, i.e., an act of schism) by the excommunicated person and the lifting of the censure (absolution) by a priest or bishop empowered to do this.
In Roman Catholic Church canon law, an act of schism, like an act of apostasy or heresy, automatically brings the penalty of excommunication on the individual who commits it.

Vitandus

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A vitandus (Latin for "one to be avoided") was someone affected by a rare and grave form of excommunication, in which the Church ordered, as a remedial measure, that the faithful were not to associate with him "except in the case of husband and wife, parents, children, servants, subjects", and in general unless there was some reasonable excusing cause.

Latae sententiae

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Excommunication can be either latae sententiae (automatic, incurred at the moment of committing the offense for which canon law imposes that penalty) or ferendae sententiae (incurred only when imposed by a legitimate superior or declared as the sentence of an ecclesiastical court).
The censures that the Code of Canon Law envisages are excommunication, interdict, and suspension.

Eastern Catholic Churches

Eastern CatholicUniateEastern Catholic Church
Within the Catholic Church, there are differences between the discipline of the majority Latin Church regarding excommunication and that of the Eastern Catholic Churches.
The schism is conventionally dated as occurring at 1054, when the Patriarch of Constantinople, Michael I Cerularius, and the Papal Legate, Humbert of Silva Candida, issued mutual excommunications.

Anathema

anathematizedanathemizedanathematised
The Orthodox churches do have a means of expulsion, by pronouncing anathema, but this is reserved only for acts of serious and unrepentant heresy.
In its other main usage, it is a formal excommunication.

Lutheranism

LutheranEvangelical LutheranLutherans
For instance, many Protestant denominations, such as the Lutheran Churches, have similar practices of excusing congregants from church communities, while Jehovah's Witnesses, as well as the Churches of Christ, use the term "disfellowship" to refer to their form of excommunication.
Clergy are prohibited from revealing anything said during private Confession and Absolution per the Seal of the Confessional, and face excommunication if it is violated.

Catholic Church

Roman CatholicCatholicRoman Catholic Church
The term is often historically used to refer specifically to excommunications from the Catholic Church, but it is also used more generally to refer to similar types of institutional religious exclusionary practices and shunning among other religious groups. In the Catholic Church, excommunication is normally resolved by a declaration of repentance, profession of the Creed (if the offense involved heresy) and an Act of Faith, or renewal of obedience (if that was a relevant part of the offending act, i.e., an act of schism) by the excommunicated person and the lifting of the censure (absolution) by a priest or bishop empowered to do this.
The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith responded by issuing a statement clarifying that any Catholic bishops involved in ordination ceremonies for women, as well as the women themselves if they were Catholic, would automatically receive the penalty of excommunication (latae sententiae, literally "with the sentence already applied", i.e. automatically), citing canon 1378 of canon law and other church laws.

Church discipline

disciplineCongregational disciplinary actionscongregational discipline
In the Reformed Churches, excommunication has generally been seen as the culmination of church discipline, which is one of the three marks of the Church.
Excommunication is usually considered a last resort if a person does not repent of their sin.

Penance

penitentpenitencepenitential
The grave act is often revoked in response to sincere penance, which may be manifested through public recantation, sometimes through the Sacrament of Confession, piety or through mortification of the flesh.
Clergy are prohibited from revealing anything said during private Confession and Absolution per the Seal of the Confessional, and face excommunication if it is violated.

Church of Denmark

Danish National ChurchLutheranDanish Church
In the Church of Sweden and the Church of Denmark, excommunicated individuals are turned out from their parish in front of their congregation.
Excommunication is legally possible but an extraordinarily rare occurrence.

Disciplinary council

church disciplinedisciplinary actiondisfellowshipped
An excommunication can occur only after a formal disciplinary council.
If a member of the Church is found guilty of an offence by a disciplinary council, he or she may be excommunicated or their church membership may be otherwise restricted.

Seal of the Confessional in the Catholic Church

Seal of the Confessionalseal of confessionSeal of the Confessional (Catholic Church)
Punishment for breaking the seal of the confessional is conferred by the severity of the violation: "a person who violate directly violates the seal of the confessional (that is: explicitly connects a sin to a penitent) "incurs a latae sententiae excommunication." One who breaks the seal "indirectly" (that is: through their words and actions make known a particular penitent's sins and somehow connects those sins to the penitent) would be punished according to the "gravity of the delict." Both St. John Paul II and Pope Benedictine XVI made it a practice to attach a latae sentintiae excommunication to indirect violations of the seal. Those who are privy to another person's confession either as an interpreter or by accidental circumstance are likewise punished according to the gravity of their delict "not excluding excommunication.".

Papal conclave

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Consequently, the College elected Giuseppe Sarto as Pope Pius X, who issued the Constitution Commissum nobis six months later, declaring that any cardinal who communicated his government's veto in the future would suffer excommunication latae sententiae.

John Calvin

CalvinJean CalvinCalvinist
Yet, John Calvin argues in his Institutes of the Christian Religion that church censures do not "consign those who are excommunicated to perpetual ruin and damnation," but are designed to induce repentance, reconciliation and restoration to communion.
The document described the manner and frequency of their celebrations of the Eucharist, the reason for, and the method of, excommunication, the requirement to subscribe to the confession of faith, the use of congregational singing in the liturgy, and the revision of marriage laws.

Censure

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Excommunication is an institutional act of religious censure used to end or at least regulate the communion of a member of a congregation with other members of the religious institution who are in normal communion with each other.
The ecclesiastical censures are excommunication and interdict, which can be imposed on any member of the Church, and suspension, which only affects clerics.

Freemasonry

FreemasonFreemasonsMasonic
The 1917 Code of Canon Law explicitly declared that joining Freemasonry entailed automatic excommunication, and banned books favouring Freemasonry.

Pope

PapacypapalBishop of Rome
For some more serious wrongdoings, absolution from excommunication is reserved to a bishop, another ordinary, or even the pope.
Papal bulls, interdict, and excommunication (or the threat thereof) have been used many times to increase papal power.

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

LDS ChurchLatter-day SaintChurch of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) practices excommunication as penalty for those who commit serious sins, i.e., actions that significantly impair the name or moral influence of the church or pose a threat to other people.
Eventually, the church adopted a policy of excommunicating its members found practicing polygamy and today actively distances itself from "fundamentalist" groups still practicing polygamy.

Interdict

papal interdicta divinis1208 Interdict
Interdict is a censure similar to excommunication.

Tithe

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Excommunicated members are also barred from wearing or purchasing temple garments and from paying tithes.
Many of the ancient and historic Christian Churches, such as the Catholic Church and the Methodist Churches, practice tithing, as it was taught by the Council of Tours in 567, and in the Third Council of Mâcon in AD 585, a penalty of excommunication was prescribed for those who did not adhere to this ecclesiastical law.