Executive Council of New Zealand

Executive CouncilMember of Executive CouncilExecutive Council in New ZealandClerk of the Executive CouncilMinistersNew Zealand's Executive Council
The Executive Council of New Zealand is the full group of "responsible advisers" to the governor-general of New Zealand on state and constitutional affairs.wikipedia
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Governor-General of New Zealand

Governor-GeneralGovernorGovernor of New Zealand
The Executive Council of New Zealand is the full group of "responsible advisers" to the governor-general of New Zealand on state and constitutional affairs.
Constitutional functions of the governor-general include presiding over the Executive Council, appointing ministers and judges, granting royal assent to legislation, and summoning and dissolving parliament.

Cabinet of New Zealand

Cabinetcabinet ministerNew Zealand Cabinet
All Government ministers must be appointed as executive councillors before they are appointed as ministers; therefore all Cabinet ministers are also executive councillors. This power is used to legally enact the decisions of Cabinet (the de facto body of executive power), which under conventions of the Westminster system has no de jure authority.
All ministers in Cabinet also serve as members of the Executive Council, the body tasked with advising the governor-general in the exercise of his or her formal constitutional functions.

Ministers of the New Zealand Government

ministersministerCabinet minister
All Government ministers must be appointed as executive councillors before they are appointed as ministers; therefore all Cabinet ministers are also executive councillors.
All ministers serve concurrently as councillors of the Executive Council of New Zealand.

Letters Patent Constituting the Office of Governor-General of New Zealand

Letters Patent 1983Letters Patentletters patent constituting the office of governor-general
The authority for its existence is provided by the Letters Patent 1983.
The letters patent—essentially an open letter from the monarch (in this case, Queen Elizabeth II) that is a legal instrument—constitutes the office of governor-general as the monarch's representative in the Realm of New Zealand, vests executive authority in the governor-general, establishes the Executive Council to advise the governor-general, and makes provision for the exercise of the governor-general's powers should the office be vacant.

Constitution Act 1986

Constitution Act1986New Zealand Constitution Act 1986
To be an executive councillor, one must normally be a member of Parliament (this was codified in the Constitution Act of 1986).
* Ministers of the Crown and members of Executive Council to be, with some timing limitations, Members of Parliament (section 6)

Cabinet Secretary

cabinet secretariesSecretary of the Cabinetcabinet
The clerk of the Executive Council (who is also the Cabinet secretary) is appointed by the governor-general on advice of the prime minister, and is responsible for attending all meetings of the Council and keeping records of its meetings, as well as for co-coordinating any official support or advice to the governor-general.
The Cabinet Secretary also serves as Clerk of the Executive Council, the formal body on which Cabinet rests.

Winston Peters

Rt Hon Winston PetersPeters, Winston Winston Peters
The appointment of Winston Peters as Minister of Foreign Affairs and Peter Dunne as Minister of Revenue subsequent to the 2005 general election saw the status of ministers outside Cabinet develop significantly, given that they were appointed to important ministerial positions outside Cabinet in exchange for their parties supporting the Government on matters of confidence and money supply while being required to defend Government policies only within their spheres of ministerial responsibility.
He was a member of the Executive Council, although he was outside cabinet.

Constitution of New Zealand

constitutionalNew Zealandconstitution
The Cabinet forms the practical expression of a formal body known as the Executive Council.

Minister of Foreign Affairs (New Zealand)

Minister of Foreign AffairsForeign MinisterMinister of External Affairs
The appointment of Winston Peters as Minister of Foreign Affairs and Peter Dunne as Minister of Revenue subsequent to the 2005 general election saw the status of ministers outside Cabinet develop significantly, given that they were appointed to important ministerial positions outside Cabinet in exchange for their parties supporting the Government on matters of confidence and money supply while being required to defend Government policies only within their spheres of ministerial responsibility.

New Zealand Parliament

ParliamentParliament of New ZealandHouse of Representatives
To be an executive councillor, one must normally be a member of Parliament (this was codified in the Constitution Act of 1986). The Executive Council was created to advise the governor-general (who represents the monarch); it was the counterpart to the Legislative Council, the now-defunct upper house of the New Zealand Parliament.

Order in Council

Orders in CouncilOrder-in-CouncilOrders-in-Council
The Executive Council's primary function is to issue Orders in Council, which operate under the authority of the "Governor-General-in-Council".

King-in-Council

Queen-in-CouncilGovernor-in-Councilin-Council
The Executive Council's primary function is to issue Orders in Council, which operate under the authority of the "Governor-General-in-Council".

Executive (government)

executiveexecutive branchExecutive power
The Executive Council has de jure executive power.

De facto

de facto relationshipde-factode facto'' segregation
This power is used to legally enact the decisions of Cabinet (the de facto body of executive power), which under conventions of the Westminster system has no de jure authority.

Westminster system

WestminsterWestminster-styleWestminster parliamentary system
This power is used to legally enact the decisions of Cabinet (the de facto body of executive power), which under conventions of the Westminster system has no de jure authority.

De jure

de iurede jure standardde-jure
This power is used to legally enact the decisions of Cabinet (the de facto body of executive power), which under conventions of the Westminster system has no de jure authority.

Advice (constitutional)

adviceConstitutional adviceadvice of
The Executive Council was created to advise the governor-general (who represents the monarch); it was the counterpart to the Legislative Council, the now-defunct upper house of the New Zealand Parliament.

New Zealand Legislative Council

Legislative CouncilMLCLegislative Council Chamber
The Executive Council was created to advise the governor-general (who represents the monarch); it was the counterpart to the Legislative Council, the now-defunct upper house of the New Zealand Parliament.

Royal prerogative

prerogative powersprerogativeprerogative power
Most of the powers vested in the governor-general (prerogative powers), such as appointments of political officials, are exercisable only under advice from the Executive Council.

Constitutional convention (political custom)

constitutional conventionconventionconstitutional conventions
The governor-general is bound by convention to follow the advice.

Minister of the Crown

ministers of the Crownministerministers
Members of the Executive Council are referred to as ministers of the Crown, which is not equivalent to being a Cabinet minister; their appointment as members of the Council gives them the authority to exercise executive power.

Ministry (government department)

ministrydepartmentgovernment ministry
Ministers outside Cabinet traditionally hold minor portfolios, or serve as associate ministers, with carefully specified powers and responsibilities delegated to them by relevant portfolio ministers.

David Lange

LangeMargaret PopeDavid '''Lange
One of the first instances in which a minister of the Crown did not hold a seat in Cabinet occurred when David Lange served as Attorney-General from 1989 to 1990, after resigning as Prime Minister.