George Washington, the first president of the United States
President Franklin D. Roosevelt delivers a radio address, 1933
President Lyndon B. Johnson signs the 1964 Civil Rights Act as Martin Luther King Jr. and others look on
President Donald Trump delivers his 2018 State of the Union Address, with Vice President Mike Pence and Speaker of the House Paul Ryan
President George H. W. Bush and Russian President Gorbachev sign the 1990 Chemical Weapons Accord in the White House.
Abraham Lincoln, the 16th president of the United States, successfully preserved the Union during the American Civil War.
President Barack Obama with his Supreme Court appointee Justice Sotomayor, 2009
President Ronald Reagan reviews honor guards during a state visit to China, 1984
President Woodrow Wilson throws out the ceremonial first ball on Opening Day, 1916
President Jimmy Carter (left) debates Republican nominee Ronald Reagan on October 28, 1980.
Map of the United States showing the number of electoral votes allocated following the 2010 census to each state and the District of Columbia for the 2012, 2016 and 2020 presidential elections; it also notes that Maine and Nebraska distribute electors by way of the congressional district method. 270 electoral votes are required for a majority out of 538 votes possible.
Franklin D. Roosevelt won a record four presidential elections (1932, 1936, 1940 and 1944), leading to the adoption of a two-term limit.
President William McKinley and his successor, Theodore Roosevelt
President Reagan surrounded by Secret Service
From left: George H. W. Bush, Barack Obama, George W. Bush, Bill Clinton, and Jimmy Carter. Photo taken in the Oval Office on January 7, 2009; Obama formally took office thirteen days later.
Presidents Barack Obama, George W. Bush, Bill Clinton, George H.W. Bush, and Jimmy Carter at the dedication of the George W. Bush Presidential Library and Museum in Dallas, 2013
White House, the official residence
Camp David, the official retreat
Blair House, the official guest house
The presidential limousine, dubbed "The Beast"
The presidential plane, called Air Force One when the president is on board
Marine One helicopter, when the president is aboard

Executive privilege is the right of the president of the United States and other members of the executive branch to maintain confidential communications under certain circumstances within the executive branch and to resist some subpoenas and other oversight by the legislative and judicial branches of government in pursuit of particular information or personnel relating to those confidential communications.

- Executive privilege

The first is executive privilege, which allows the president to withhold from disclosure any communications made directly to the president in the performance of executive duties.

- President of the United States

8 related topics with Alpha

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Richard Nixon

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Nixon (second from right) makes his newspaper debut in 1916, contributing five cents to a fund for war orphans. His brother Donald is to his right.
Nixon at Whittier High School, 1930
Nixon's family: Julie and David Eisenhower, President Nixon, First Lady Pat Nixon, Tricia and Edward Cox (December 24, 1971)
Lieutenant Commander Richard Nixon, United States Navy (circa 1945)
Nixon's congressional campaign flyer
Nixon campaigning for the Senate, 1950
Nixon campaigns in Sausalito, California, 1950
Official Vice Presidential portrait
Front cover of literature for the Eisenhower–Nixon campaign, 1952
Nikita Khrushchev and Nixon speak as the press looks on at the Kitchen Debate, July 24, 1959
John F. Kennedy and Nixon before their first televised 1960 debate
1960 electoral vote results
Nixon and Lyndon Johnson leave the White House for the Kennedy–Johnson inauguration
Nixon shows his papers to an East German officer to cross between the sectors of the divided City of Berlin, 1963
Nixon and Johnson meet at the White House before Nixon's nomination, July 1968
Nixon campaigning July 1968
1968 electoral vote results; the popular vote between Nixon and Humphrey was less than one percentage point apart
Nixon is sworn in as the 37th President by Chief Justice Earl Warren. The new First Lady, Pat, holds the family Bible.
Mao Zedong and Nixon
Nixon delivers an address to the nation about the incursion in Cambodia
Nixon visits American troops in South Vietnam, July 30, 1969
Nixon with Mexican president Gustavo Díaz Ordaz (to his right); motorcade in San Diego, California, September 1970
Nixon with Brezhnev during the Soviet leader's trip to the U.S., 1973
Nixon with President Anwar Sadat of Egypt, June 1974
Nixon at the Washington Senators' 1969 Opening Day with team owner Bob Short (arms folded) and Baseball Commissioner Bowie Kuhn (hand on mouth). Nixon's aide, Major Jack Brennan, sits behind them in uniform.
Nixon gives 1971 State of the Union Address
Official Nixon portrait by James Anthony Wills, c. 1984
Graph of increases in U.S. incarceration rate
Nixon visiting the Apollo 11 astronauts in quarantine aboard the aircraft carrier USS Hornet
1972 electoral vote results
Nixon takes questions at 1973 press conference
Demonstrator demands impeachment, October 1973
Nixon announces the release of edited transcripts of the Watergate tapes, April 29, 1974
Nixon's farewell speech to the White House staff, August 9, 1974
President Ford announcing his decision to pardon Nixon, September 8, 1974, in the Oval Office
President Jimmy Carter and ex-Presidents Gerald Ford and Nixon meet at the White House before former Vice President Hubert Humphrey's funeral, 1978
Nixon speaking with Chinese Vice Premier Deng Xiaoping and U.S. President Jimmy Carter at the White House, 1979
President Ronald Reagan meets with his three immediate predecessors, Gerald Ford, Jimmy Carter and Nixon at the White House, October 1981; the three former presidents would represent the United States at the funeral of Egyptian President Anwar Sadat.
Nixon with President Bill Clinton in the residence of the White House, March 1993
Five U.S. presidents (including then-incumbent President Bill Clinton) and their wives attending the funeral of Richard Nixon, April 27, 1994
The graves of President Richard Nixon and First Lady Pat Nixon
Richard Nixon's Presidential Library and Museum located in Yorba Linda, California
With Elvis Presley in December 1970: "The President & The King"
Presidents Gerald Ford, Nixon, George H.W. Bush, Ronald Reagan, and Jimmy Carter in 1991
Campaign button ironically emphasizing the personality and public image assessments discussed in this section
Nixon with Israeli Prime Minister Golda Meir, June 1974.
Nixon in Yorba Linda, 1950

Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913April 22, 1994) was the 37th president of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974.

These tapes were subpoenaed by Watergate Special Counsel Archibald Cox; Nixon provided transcripts of the conversations but not the actual tapes, citing executive privilege.

Official portrait, 1959

Dwight D. Eisenhower

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Official portrait, 1959
The Eisenhower family home in Abilene, Kansas
Eisenhower (third from left) and Omar Bradley (second from right) were members of the 1912 West Point football team.
Mamie Eisenhower, painted in 1953 by Thomas E. Stephens
Eisenhower (far right) with three friends (William Stuhler, Major Brett, and Paul V. Robinson) in 1919, four years after graduating from West Point
Eisenhower as a major general, 1942
General Eisenhower, General Patton (standing to the left) and President Roosevelt in Sicily, 1943
Eisenhower speaks with men of the 502nd Parachute Infantry Regiment (PIR), part of the 101st "Screaming Eagles" Airborne Division, on June 5, 1944, the day before the D-Day invasion. The officer Eisenhower is speaking to is First Lieutenant Wallace Strobel.
From left, front row includes army officers Simpson, Patton, Spaatz, Eisenhower, Bradley, Hodges and Gerow in 1945
Eisenhower with Allied commanders following the signing of the German Instrument of Surrender at Reims
Eisenhower as General of the Army, 1945
General Eisenhower served as military governor of the American zone (highlighted) in Allied-occupied Germany from May through November 1945.
General Eisenhower (left) in Warsaw, Poland, 1945
Eisenhower lighting the Columbia University Yule Log, 1949
Eisenhower posing in front of Alma Mater at Columbia in 1953
As president of Columbia, Eisenhower presents an honorary degree to Jawaharlal Nehru.
Eisenhower button from the 1952 campaign
1952 electoral vote results
1956 electoral vote results
February 1959 White House portrait
Eisenhower meeting with Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser during Nasser's visit to United Nations in New York, September 1960
Eisenhower visits the Kingdom of Afghanistan and its king Mohammed Zahir Shah in Kabul.
Eisenhower with Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru.
U.S. President Eisenhower visits the Republic of China and its President Chiang Kai-shek in Taipei.
Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev during his 11-day U.S. visit as guest of President Eisenhower, September 1959.
President Eisenhower with Wernher von Braun, 1960
Eisenhower in Korea with General Chung Il-kwon, and Baik Seon-yup, 1952
Spanish dictator Francisco Franco and Eisenhower in Madrid in 1959.
Eisenhower with the Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (1959)
Eisenhower and Vice President Richard Nixon with their host, King Saud of Saudi Arabia, at the Mayflower Hotel (1957)
A U-2 reconnaissance aircraft in flight
Official White House Portrait of President Eisenhower, c. 1960
Eisenhower speaks to the press at the 1964 Republican National Convention
President Lyndon Johnson with Eisenhower aboard Air Force One in October 1965
Eisenhower with President Richard Nixon in February 1969
Eisenhower's funeral service
Graves of Dwight D. Eisenhower, Doud Dwight "Icky" Eisenhower and Mamie Eisenhower in Abilene, Kansas
Eisenhower signs the legislation that changes Armistice Day to Veterans Day, June 1, 1954
President John F. Kennedy meets with General Eisenhower at Camp David, April 22, 1961, three days after the failed Bay of Pigs Invasion
Eisenhower Interstate System sign south of San Antonio, Texas
Bronze statue of Eisenhower in the Capitol rotunda
The star of the Soviet Order of Victory awarded to Eisenhower
The coat of arms granted to Eisenhower upon his incorporation as a knight of the Danish Order of the Elephant in 1950. The anvil represents the fact that his name is derived from the German for "iron hewer", making these an example of canting arms.

Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (born David Dwight Eisenhower; ; October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American military officer and statesman who served as the 34th president of the United States from 1953 to 1961.

He covertly opposed Joseph McCarthy and contributed to the end of McCarthyism by openly invoking executive privilege.

United States v. Nixon

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United States v. Nixon, 418 U.S. 683 (1974), was a landmark United States Supreme Court case that resulted in a unanimous decision against President Richard Nixon, ordering him to deliver tape recordings and other subpoenaed materials to a federal district court.

United States v. Nixon is considered a crucial precedent limiting the power of any U.S. president to claim executive privilege.

Portrait by Rembrandt Peale, 1800

Thomas Jefferson

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Portrait by Rembrandt Peale, 1800
Thomas Jefferson's Coat of Arms
Wren Building, College of William & Mary where Jefferson studied
House of Burgesses in Williamsburg, Virginia, where Jefferson served 1769–1775
Jefferson's home Monticello in Virginia
Jefferson's daughter Martha
U.S. Declaration of Independence – 1823 facsimile of the engrossed copy
Governor's Palace, Governor Jefferson's residence in Williamsburg
Independence Hall Assembly Room where Jefferson served in Congress
Portrait of Thomas Jefferson while in London in 1786 at 44 by Mather Brown
Thomas Jefferson in 1791 at 48 by Charles Willson Peale
1796 election results
Jefferson in 1799 at 57, painted by Charles Peale Polk
1800 election results
President Thomas Jefferson Peale 1805 Reproduction
Barbary Coast of North Africa 1806. Left is Morocco at Gibraltar, center is Tunis, and right is Tripoli.
The 1803 Louisiana Purchase totaled 827,987 sqmi, doubling the size of the United States.
Corps of Discovery, October 1805 (by Charles Marion Russell, 1905)
map
Black Hoof, leader of the Shawnee, accepted Jefferson's Indian assimilation policies.
1804 Electoral College vote
1802 portrait of Aaron Burr by John Vanderlyn
HMS Leopard (right) firing upon USS Chesapeake
A political cartoon showing merchants dodging the "Ograbme", which is "Embargo" spelled backwards (1807)
Portrait of Jefferson by Gilbert Stuart, 1821.
The University of Virginia, Jefferson's "Academical Village"
In 1804, Abigail Adams attempted to reconcile Jefferson and Adams.
Lafayette in 1824, portrait by Ary Scheffer, hanging in U.S. House of Representatives
Jefferson's gravesite
Thomas Jefferson at age 78. Portrait by Thomas Sully hanging at West Point, commissioned by Faculty and Cadets, 1821.
The Jefferson Bible featuring only the words of Jesus from the evangelists, in parallel Greek, Latin, French and English
Jefferson by Gilbert Stuart in 1805
Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton, national bank proponent and Jefferson's adversary
Jefferson's 1795 Farm Book, page 30, lists 163 slaves at Monticello.
Jefferson depicted as a rooster, and Hemings as a hen
Virginia State Capitol, designed by Jefferson (wings added later)
Mount Rushmore National Memorial (left to right): George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt, and Abraham Lincoln
Jefferson Memorial, Washington, D.C.
Thomas Jefferson Memorial Statue, by Rudulph Evans (1947)
Jefferson on the $2 bill
alt=Commemorative stone erected at Thomas Jefferson's birthplace in Shadwell, Virginia, on April 13, 1929.|Jefferson's Birthplace
Albert Gallatin Jefferson's Treasury economic architect Stuart 1803

Thomas Jefferson (April 13, 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American statesman, diplomat, lawyer, architect, philosopher, and Founding Father who served as the third president of the United States from 1801 to 1809.

Burr's legal team at one stage subpoenaed Jefferson, but Jefferson refused to testify, making the first argument for executive privilege.

Page one of the officially engrossed copy of the Constitution signed by delegates. A print run of 500 copies of the final version preceded this copy.

Constitution of the United States

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Supreme law of the United States of America.

Supreme law of the United States of America.

Page one of the officially engrossed copy of the Constitution signed by delegates. A print run of 500 copies of the final version preceded this copy.
Signing of the Constitution, September 17, 1787 (1940 by Howard Chandler Christy)
Dates the 13 states ratified the Constitution
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"We the People" in an original edition
Closing endorsement section of the United States Constitution
United States Bill of Rights
Currently housed in the National Archives.
John Jay, 1789–1795
John Marshall, 1801–1835
Salmon P. Chase {{refn|group= lower-alpha|The Chase Court, 1864–1873, in 1865 were Salmon P. Chase (chief Justice); Hon. Nathan Clifford, Maine; Stephen J. Field, Justice Supreme Court, U.S.; Hon. Samuel F. Miller, U.S. Supreme Court; Hon. Noah H. Swayne, Justice Supreme Court, U.S.; Judge Morrison R. Waite}}
William Howard Taft {{refn|group= lower-alpha|The Taft Court, 1921–1930, in 1925 were James Clark McReynolds, Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr., William Howard Taft (chief justice), Willis Van Devanter, Louis Brandeis. Edward Sanford, George Sutherland, Pierce Butler, Harlan Fiske Stone}}
Earl Warren {{refn|group= lower-alpha|The Warren Court, 1953–1969, in 1963 were Felix Frankfurter; Hugo Black; Earl Warren (chief justice); Stanley Reed; William O. Douglas. Tom Clark; Robert H. Jackson; Harold Burton; Sherman Minton}}
William Rehnquist {{refn|group= lower-alpha|The Rehnquist Court, 1986–2005.}}
José Rizal
Sun Yat-sen

Its first three articles embody the doctrine of the separation of powers, whereby the federal government is divided into three branches: the legislative, consisting of the bicameral Congress (Article I); the executive, consisting of the president and subordinate officers (Article II); and the judicial, consisting of the Supreme Court and other federal courts (Article III).

John Marshall recognized that the president holds "important political powers" which as executive privilege allows great discretion.

Official portrait, 2003

George W. Bush

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Official portrait, 2003
George W. Bush with his parents, Barbara and George H. W. Bush, c. undefined 1947
Governor Bush (right) with father, former president George H. W. Bush, and wife, Laura, 1997
2000 electoral vote results
2004 electoral vote results
George W. Bush re-election campaign stop in Grand Rapids, Michigan.
Deficit and debt increases from 2001 to 2009. Gross debt has increased over $500billion each year since the 2003 fiscal year.
President Bush signing the No Child Left Behind Act into law, January 8, 2002
President Bush delivering a statement on energy, urging Congress to end offshore oil drill ban, June 18, 2008
President Bush discussing border security with Secretary of Homeland Security Michael Chertoff near El Paso, November 2005
President Bush with hurricane victims in Biloxi, September 2, 2005
President Bush announcing his nomination of Alberto Gonzales as the next U.S. Attorney General, November 10, 2004
Countries visited by President George W. Bush during his time in office
President Bush with Russian president Vladimir Putin in Shanghai, October 21, 2001. Russia had cooperated with the U.S. in the war on terror.
President Bush, beside firefighter Bob Beckwith, addressing rescue workers at the World Trade Center site
Countries with major military operations throughout the war on terror launched by Bush, including those launched after his presidency
President Bush and President Hamid Karzai of Afghanistan in Kabul, March 1, 2006
President Bush, with Naval Flight Officer Lieutenant Ryan Philips, after landing on the USS Abraham Lincoln prior to his Mission Accomplished speech, May 1, 2003
Gallup/USA Today Bush public opinion polling from February 2001 to January 2009
Protest against the Iraq War in New London, Connecticut on May 23, 2007
Countries with a U.S. military presence in 2007
Charlie Strong (left), Texas Longhorns head football coach, George W. Bush and Reverend Jesse Jackson hold up a Texas Longhorns football jersey at the LBJ Presidential Library in 2014
Bush eulogizing his father at the National Cathedral, December 5, 2018
George W. Bush and Laura at the inauguration of Joe Biden
George W. Bush Presidential Center, on the campus of Southern Methodist University
Bush on January 20, 2001 in Washington D.C., the day of his first inauguration as President of the United States.
Former President George W. Bush and his wife being escorted to a waiting helicopter by President Barack Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama on January 20, 2009.

George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 43rd president of the United States from 2001 to 2009.

The House Judiciary Committee issued subpoenas for advisers Harriet Miers and Josh Bolten to testify regarding this matter, but Bush directed Miers and Bolten to not comply with those subpoenas, invoking his right of executive privilege.

The United States Capitol dome as seen from the Supreme Court Building

Separation of powers under the United States Constitution

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Political doctrine originating in the writings of Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu in The Spirit of the Laws, in which he argued for a constitutional government with three separate branches, each of which would have defined abilities to check the powers of the others.

Political doctrine originating in the writings of Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu in The Spirit of the Laws, in which he argued for a constitutional government with three separate branches, each of which would have defined abilities to check the powers of the others.

The United States Capitol dome as seen from the Supreme Court Building
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Grover Cleveland worked to restore power to the Presidency after Andrew Johnson's impeachment.

Executive power is vested, with exceptions and qualifications, in the President.

Nixon also asserted that "executive privilege" shielded him from all legislative oversight; furthermore, he impounded federal funds (that is to say, he refused to spend money that Congress had appropriated for government programs).

Former Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein

Mueller report

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Official report documenting the findings and conclusions of former Special Counsel Robert Mueller's investigation into Russian efforts to interfere in the 2016 United States presidential election, allegations of conspiracy or coordination between Donald Trump's presidential campaign and Russia, and allegations of obstruction of justice.

Official report documenting the findings and conclusions of former Special Counsel Robert Mueller's investigation into Russian efforts to interfere in the 2016 United States presidential election, allegations of conspiracy or coordination between Donald Trump's presidential campaign and Russia, and allegations of obstruction of justice.

Former Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein
Former FBI Director James Comey
Don McGahn, former White House Counsel to President Trump

The redactions from the report and its supporting material were placed under a temporary "protective assertion" of executive privilege by then-President Trump on May 8, 2019, preventing the material from being passed to Congress, despite earlier reassurance by Barr that Trump would not exert privilege.

On May 9, 2017, President Donald Trump dismissed former Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, James Comey, who had been leading an ongoing Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) investigation into links between Trump associates and Russian officials.