Exercise

Running in water (aquarunning)
Weight training
An aerobics exercise instructor instructs her class to keep up the pace in the United States.
Summary of long-term adaptations to regular aerobic and anaerobic exercise. Aerobic exercise can cause several central cardiovascular adaptations, including an increase in stroke volume (SV) and maximal aerobic capacity (VO2 max), as well as a decrease in resting heart rate (RHR). Long-term adaptations to resistance training, the most common form of anaerobic exercise, include muscular hypertrophy,  an increase in the physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) of muscle(s), and an increase in neural drive,  both of which lead to increased muscular strength. Neural adaptations begin more quickly and plateau prior to the hypertrophic response.
Roper's gymnasium, Philadelphia, USA, circa 1831.
Running helps in achieving physical fitness.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/healthyliving/running-and-jogging-health-benefits#goal-setting-for-running-and-jogging |title= Running and jogging - health benefits}}</ref>
Skateboarding is good for cardiovascular health<ref>{{cite web |title=5 Reasons Why Skateboarding Is Good Exercise |url=https://longboardingnation.com/reasons-skateboarding-good-exercise/ |website=Longboarding Nation |access-date=6 July 2021 |date=25 January 2019}}</ref>{{Better source needed|date=January 2022}}
Swimming as an exercise tones muscles and builds strength.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/healthyliving/swimming-health-benefits#health-benefits-of-swimming |title= Swimming - health benefits }}</ref>
Athletics (ex. pole vault) as a form of exercise
Football as an exercise

Any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness.

- Exercise
Running in water (aquarunning)

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A bike lane in Amsterdam. Bike lanes are dedicated for cyclists and provide shelter from vehicle traffic.

Cycling

A bike lane in Amsterdam. Bike lanes are dedicated for cyclists and provide shelter from vehicle traffic.
Police cyclists in London.
A woman cycling in Sri Lanka.
A parking lot for bicycles in Niigata, Japan.
Bicycle stands outside the Centre for Mathematical Sciences at the University of Cambridge. Many students at the university opt to travel by bicycle.
The safe physically separated Fietspad in the Netherlands, keeping cyclists away from traffic as seen in Utrecht.
A bicycle loaded with tender coconuts for sale in Karnataka, India.
In the Netherlands, bicycles are freely available for use in the Hoge Veluwe National Park.
Tour de Fat group ride in Portland, Oregon.
San Jose Bike Party in San Jose, California (July 2019).
Bicycle racing in 1909.
A peloton of professional bicycle racers on the Golden Gate Bridge.
OP Grand Prix, a one-hour cycling competition in Porvoo, Finland, on June 11, 2005.
San Francisco Critical Mass, April 29, 2005.
Headquarters of the Union Cycliste Internationale in Switzerland.
Heavily equipped London cyclist: specialist cycle clothing, pollution mask, dark glasses and helmet.
Bike at Prins Hendrikkade, Amsterdam.
Virgin Mary venerated as the holy protector of bicyclists on the roads of the mountainous Basque Country.
Bicyclist pedals uphill at the Taroko Gorge in Taiwan.
Bicycles in Helsinki (Finland).

Cycling, also called bicycling or biking, is the use of bicycles for transport, recreation, exercise or sport.

Physical activity is not just exercise. It includes other activities that involve movement; for example cleaning, working, active transport etc.

Physical activity

Defined as any voluntary bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that requires energy expenditure.

Defined as any voluntary bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that requires energy expenditure.

Physical activity is not just exercise. It includes other activities that involve movement; for example cleaning, working, active transport etc.
Intensity of physical activities on a continuum from sedentary behavior to vigorous physical activity.

It includes both exercise and incidental activity integrated into daily routine.

Physical fitness is achieved through exercise, among other factors. Photo shows Rich Froning Jr. – four-time winner of "Fittest Man on Earth" title.

Physical fitness

State of health and well-being and, more specifically, the ability to perform aspects of sports, occupations and daily activities.

State of health and well-being and, more specifically, the ability to perform aspects of sports, occupations and daily activities.

Physical fitness is achieved through exercise, among other factors. Photo shows Rich Froning Jr. – four-time winner of "Fittest Man on Earth" title.
Playing sports such as lawn tennis is a common way to maintain/improve physical fitness. Image shows international tennis player Barbora Strycova.
Swimmers in competitive swimwear perform squats prior to entering the pool in a U.S. military base, 2011.
Ladies performing a common 19th-century fitness routine including climbing the underside of a ladder, balancing and gymnastics.

Physical fitness is generally achieved through proper nutrition, moderate-vigorous physical exercise, and sufficient rest along with a formal recovery plan.

A gym environment where various forms of strength training are being practiced. Identified from left to right, the exercises are: overhead presses, battle ropes, planking, and kettlebell raises.

Strength training

Strength training or resistance training involves the performance of physical exercises that are designed to improve strength and endurance.

Strength training or resistance training involves the performance of physical exercises that are designed to improve strength and endurance.

A gym environment where various forms of strength training are being practiced. Identified from left to right, the exercises are: overhead presses, battle ropes, planking, and kettlebell raises.
The bodyweight squat is effective at strengthening the legs and core. It requires no equipment and can be performed almost anywhere. A person stands with their arms by their sides, and then squats down moving their arms out ahead of themselves, and then stands up again while moving their arms back to their sides, and so forth.
A back extension
Using a wrist strap
A woman doing strength training using weights at a health club with her coach standing behind her.
Arthur Saxon performing a Two Hands Anyhow with an early kettlebell and plate-loaded barbell

In addition, people who undergo strength training tend to have a more favorable body image even than those who also engage in regular physical activities such as walking and running.

Animation of a full push-up (the wide positioning of the hands increases the push-up's use of chest muscles as opposed to arm muscles)

Push-up

Animation of a full push-up (the wide positioning of the hands increases the push-up's use of chest muscles as opposed to arm muscles)
Side view of a push-up
Military recruits will often perform push-ups as part of their physical training. Here, U.S. Marine recruits at Marine Corps Recruit Depot San Diego perform push-ups in May 2005, as a part of their basic recruit training.
Planche position
The Hindu push-up, also known as a dand. This is the most basic version, similar to that used by Bruce Lee who referred to it as a cat stretch.
A U.S. Army employee demonstrates a one-arm push-up in an extended position.

The push-up (sometimes called a press-up in British English) is a common calisthenics exercise beginning from the prone position.

Donald Henderson as part of the CDC's smallpox eradication team in 1966.

Health

Health, according to the World Health Organization, is "a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity".

Health, according to the World Health Organization, is "a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity".

Donald Henderson as part of the CDC's smallpox eradication team in 1966.
Percentage of overweight or obese population in 2010, Data source: OECD's iLibrary.
Percentage of obese population in 2010, Data source: OECD's iLibrary.
Modern drug ampoules
Nurses in Kokopo, East New Britain, Papua New Guinea
Postage stamp, New Zealand, 1933. Public health has been promoted – and depicted – in a wide variety of ways.
A lady washing her hands c. 1655

Health can be promoted by encouraging healthful activities, such as regular physical exercise and adequate sleep, and by reducing or avoiding unhealthful activities or situations, such as smoking or excessive stress.

A group of amateur runners in a long-distance race in Switzerland.

Long-distance running

Form of continuous running over distances of at least 3 km. Physiologically, it is largely aerobic in nature and requires stamina as well as mental strength.

Form of continuous running over distances of at least 3 km. Physiologically, it is largely aerobic in nature and requires stamina as well as mental strength.

A group of amateur runners in a long-distance race in Switzerland.
Burton Holmes' photograph entitled "1896: Three athletes in training for the marathon at the Olympic Games in Athens".
Paavo Nurmi, also known as the "Flying Finn", at the 1924 Summer Olympics in Paris; at the time, he won Olympic gold in the 5,000-meter long-distance running.
Men in the 10 km run section of the 2011 Grand Prix de Triathlon in Paris.
Runners turning the bend in the men's 10,000 metres final at the 2012 Summer Olympics.
Women runners on a closed-off-road at the 2009 Yokohama Marathon.
Women racing on snow in the 2012 European Cross Country Championships

In modern human society, long-distance running has multiple purposes: people may engage in it for physical exercise, for recreation, as a means of travel, for economic reasons, or for cultural reasons.

A step aerobics exercise instructor in the United States Army motivates her class to keep up the pace.

Aerobic exercise

A step aerobics exercise instructor in the United States Army motivates her class to keep up the pace.
Cardio and muscle endurance exercise session using plastic steps or platforms
Fox and Haskell formula shows the split between aerobic (light orange) and anaerobic (dark orange) exercise and heart rate

Aerobic exercise (also known as endurance activities, cardio or cardio-respiratory exercise) is physical exercise of low to high intensity that depends primarily on the aerobic energy-generating process.

Samira Mustafaeva, Russian rhythmic gymnast

Stretching

Samira Mustafaeva, Russian rhythmic gymnast
A stretching Siberian tiger
A roller derby athlete stretching
Football player Luis Suárez stretching prior to a match.
Martin Brodeur stretching on the Devils' bench during warmups.
Assisted stretching may be performed when the athlete is unable to stretch optimally independently. For example, during cramping of the hamstrings, assistance in stretching out the muscles may help.
Yoga Asana stretching

Stretching is a form of physical exercise in which a specific muscle or tendon (or muscle group) is deliberately flexed or stretched in order to improve the muscle's felt elasticity and achieve comfortable muscle tone.

A drawing of someone with insomnia from the 14th century

Insomnia

Sleep disorder in which people have trouble sleeping.

Sleep disorder in which people have trouble sleeping.

A drawing of someone with insomnia from the 14th century
Potential complications of insomnia.
Normison (temazepam) is a benzodiazepine commonly prescribed for insomnia and other sleep disorders.

Sleep hygiene includes a consistent bedtime, a quiet and dark room, exposure to sunlight during the day and regular exercise.