Exon

exonsexons.coding regioncoding regionsexon genesexonicminiexons
An exon is any part of a gene that will encode a part of the final mature RNA produced by that gene after introns have been removed by RNA splicing.wikipedia
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Gene

genesnumber of genesgene sequence
An exon is any part of a gene that will encode a part of the final mature RNA produced by that gene after introns have been removed by RNA splicing.
For example, regulatory regions of a gene can be far removed from its coding regions, and coding regions can be split into several exons.

RNA splicing

splicingsplice sitespliced
An exon is any part of a gene that will encode a part of the final mature RNA produced by that gene after introns have been removed by RNA splicing. Exon trapping or 'gene trapping' is a molecular biology technique that exploits the existence of the intron-exon splicing to find new genes.
During splicing, introns (Non-coding regions) are removed and exons (Coding Regions) are joined together.

Exome

exomes
Just as the entire set of genes for a species constitutes the genome, the entire set of exons constitutes the exome.
The exome is composed of all of the exons within the genome, the sequences which, when transcribed, remain within the mature RNA after introns are removed by RNA splicing.

Exome sequencing

Whole exome sequencingwhole-exome sequencingexome
This can provide a practical advantage in omics-aided health care (such as precision medicine) because it makes commercialized whole exome sequencing a smaller and less expensive challenge than commercialized whole genome sequencing.
These regions are known as exons – humans have about 180,000 exons, constituting about 1% of the human genome, or approximately 30 million base pairs.

Non-coding DNA

junk DNAnoncoding DNAnon-coding
Although unicellular eukaryotes such as yeast have either no introns or very few, metazoans and especially vertebrate genomes have a large fraction of non-coding DNA.
Studies of group I introns from Tetrahymena protozoans indicate that some introns appear to be selfish genetic elements, neutral to the host because they remove themselves from flanking exons during RNA processing and do not produce an expression bias between alleles with and without the intron.

Walter Gilbert

GilbertGilbert, WalterWalter (Wally) Gilbert
The term exon derives from the expressed region and was coined by American biochemist Walter Gilbert in 1978: "The notion of the cistron… must be replaced by that of a transcription unit containing regions which will be lost from the mature messenger – which I suggest we call introns (for intragenic regions) – alternating with regions which will be expressed – exons."
Gilbert first proposed the existence of introns and exons and explained the evolution of introns in a seminal 1978 "News and Views" paper published in Nature.

Human genome

genomehuman DNAhuman geneticist
For instance, in the human genome only 1.1% of the genome is spanned by exons, whereas 24% is in introns, with 75% of the genome being intergenic DNA.
The complete modular protein-coding capacity of the genome is contained within the exome, and consists of DNA sequences encoded by exons that can be translated into proteins.

Alternative splicing

alternatively splicedtranscript variantssplice variant
Mature mRNAs originating from the same gene need not include the same exons, since different introns in the pre-mRNA can be removed by the process of alternative splicing.
In this process, particular exons of a gene may be included within or excluded from the final, processed messenger RNA (mRNA) produced from that gene.

Intron

intronsintragenicintronic
An exon is any part of a gene that will encode a part of the final mature RNA produced by that gene after introns have been removed by RNA splicing.
Sequences that are joined together in the final mature RNA after RNA splicing are exons.

Exon trapping

exon-trapping
Exon trapping or 'gene trapping' is a molecular biology technique that exploits the existence of the intron-exon splicing to find new genes.
Exon trapping is a molecular biology technique to identify potential exons in a fragment of eukaryote DNA of unknown intron-exon structure.

Intergenic region

intergenicintergenic DNAintergenic sequences
For instance, in the human genome only 1.1% of the genome is spanned by exons, whereas 24% is in introns, with 75% of the genome being intergenic DNA.

Morpholino

Morpholino antisense oligosPhosphorodiamidate morpholino oligophosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers
Splicing can be experimentally modified so that targeted exons are excluded from mature mRNA transcripts by blocking the access of splice-directing small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles (snRNPs) to pre-mRNA using Morpholino antisense oligos.
Knocking down gene expression is a method for learning about the function of a particular protein; in a similar manner, causing a specific exon to be spliced out of the RNA transcript encoding a protein can help to determine the function of the protein moiety encoded by that exon or can sometimes knock down the protein activity altogether.

Exon shuffling

exon-shufflingexonsillegitimate recombination
It is a process through which two or more exons from different genes can be brought together ectopically, or the same exon can be duplicated, to create a new exon-intron structure.

Exitron

Exitrons (exonic introns) are produced through alternative splicing and have characteristics of both introns and exons, but are described as retained introns.

Interrupted gene

split genesplit genessplit or interrupted
An interrupted gene (also called a split gene) is a gene that contains sections of DNA called exons, which are expressed as RNA and protein, interrupted by sections of DNA called introns, which are not expressed.

Enhancer (genetics)

enhancerenhancersgene enhancer
This new exon contains the ORF for a reporter gene that can now be expressed using the enhancers that control the target gene.
Enhancers can also be found at the exonic region of an unrelated gene and they may act on genes on another chromosome.

Untranslated region

UTRuntranslated regionsUTRs
In protein-coding genes, the exons include both the protein-coding sequence and the 5′- and 3′-untranslated regions (UTR).
The RNA that results from RNA splicing are called exons.

Messenger RNA

mRNAmRNAstranscripts
In RNA splicing, introns are removed and exons are covalently joined to one another as part of generating the mature messenger RNA.
The extensive processing of eukaryotic pre-mRNA that leads to the mature mRNA is the RNA splicing, a mechanism by which introns or outrons (non-coding regions) are removed and exons (coding regions) are joined together.

RNA

ribonucleic aciddsRNAdouble-stranded RNA
An exon is any part of a gene that will encode a part of the final mature RNA produced by that gene after introns have been removed by RNA splicing.

Species

specificspecific epithetspecific name
Just as the entire set of genes for a species constitutes the genome, the entire set of exons constitutes the exome.

Genome

genomesgenetic materialgenomic
Just as the entire set of genes for a species constitutes the genome, the entire set of exons constitutes the exome.

Biochemistry

biochemistbiochemicalbiological chemistry
The term exon derives from the expressed region and was coined by American biochemist Walter Gilbert in 1978: "The notion of the cistron… must be replaced by that of a transcription unit containing regions which will be lost from the mature messenger – which I suggest we call introns (for intragenic regions) – alternating with regions which will be expressed – exons."

Cistron

polycistronicmonocistronicbicistronic
The term exon derives from the expressed region and was coined by American biochemist Walter Gilbert in 1978: "The notion of the cistron… must be replaced by that of a transcription unit containing regions which will be lost from the mature messenger – which I suggest we call introns (for intragenic regions) – alternating with regions which will be expressed – exons."