Exophthalmos

proptosisexophthalmiaexophthalmicbulging eyesexopthalmoseye proptosisbulging of the infected eyeenophthalmoseye bulgingEye prolapse
Exophthalmos (also called exophthalmus, exophthalmia, proptosis, or exorbitism) is a bulging of the eye anteriorly out of the orbit.wikipedia
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Graves' disease

Graves diseaseGrave's diseaseGraves’ disease
Exophthalmos can be either bilateral (as is often seen in Graves' disease) or unilateral (as is often seen in an orbital tumor).
Other symptoms may include thickening of the skin on the shins, known as pretibial myxedema, and eye bulging, a condition caused by Graves' ophthalmopathy.

Graves' ophthalmopathy

Graves ophthalmopathythyroid eye diseaseophthalmopathy
Graves ophthalmopathy,also known as thyroid eye disease (TED), is an autoimmune inflammatory disorder of the orbit and periorbital tissues, characterized by upper eyelid retraction, lid lag, swelling, redness (erythema), conjunctivitis, and bulging eyes (exophthalmos).

Orbital cellulitis

orbit
Orbital cellulitis commonly presents with painful eye movement, sudden vision loss, chemosis, bulging of the infected eye, and limited eye movement.

Idiopathic orbital inflammatory disease

Orbital pseudotumoridiopathic orbital inflammatory syndromeinfiltrative orbitopathy
It is the most common painful orbital mass in the adult population, and is associated with proptosis, cranial nerve palsy (Tolosa–Hunt syndrome), uveitis, and retinal detachment.

Erdheim–Chester disease

Erdheim-Chester DiseaseErdheim disease
Exophthalmos occurs in some patients and is usually bilateral, symmetric and painless, and in most cases it occurs several years before the final diagnosis.

Orbit (anatomy)

orbitorbitseye socket
Exophthalmos (also called exophthalmus, exophthalmia, proptosis, or exorbitism) is a bulging of the eye anteriorly out of the orbit.
If excessive tissue accumulates behind the ocular globe, the eye can protrude, or become exophthalmic.

Hand–Schüller–Christian disease

Hand-Schüller-Christian diseaseHand-Schüller-Christian triad
It is associated with a triad of exophthalmos, lytic bone lesions (often in the skull), and diabetes insipidus (from pituitary stalk infiltration).

Superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis

Another possible complication is a form of redness or irritation called "Superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis", where the area above the cornea becomes inflamed as a result of increased friction when blinking.
This mechanical hypothesis is supported by the increased lid apposition of exophthalmic thyroid patients, who are known to have an increased incidence of superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis.

Exophthalmometer

Measurement of the degree of exophthalmos is performed using an exophthalmometer.
An Exophthalmometer is an instrument used for measuring the degree of forward displacement of the eye in exophthalmos.

Pfeiffer syndrome

Pfeiffer syndrome type 2
The head is unable to grow normally, which leads to a high prominent forehead (turribrachycephaly), and eyes that appear to bulge (proptosis) and are wide-set (hypertelorism).

Pug

pugspug dogMops
Exophthalmos is commonly seen in the pug, Boston terrier, Pekingese, and shih tzu.
Since pugs lack longer snouts and prominent skeletal brow ridges, they are susceptible to eye injuries such as proptosis, scratched corneas, and painful entropion.

Carotid-cavernous fistula

carotid-cavernous sinus fistulaCarotid cavernous fistulacarotico-cavernous fistula
CCF symptoms include bruit (a humming sound within the skull due to high blood flow through the arteriovenous fistula), progressive visual loss, and pulsatile proptosis or progressive bulging of the eye due to dilatation of the veins draining the eye.

Enophthalmos

apparently sunken eyeeye to sink inwardssunken ocular globes
It should not be confused with its opposite, exophthalmos, which is the anterior displacement of the eye.

Boston's sign

Boston's sign is the spasmodic lowering of the upper eyelid on downward rotation of the eye, indicating exophthalmic goiter.

Von Graefe's sign

Gräfe's sign
Von Graefe's sign is the lagging of the upper eyelid on downward rotation of the eye, indicating exophthalmic goiter (Graves' Disease).

Human eye

eyeeyeseyeball
Exophthalmos (also called exophthalmus, exophthalmia, proptosis, or exorbitism) is a bulging of the eye anteriorly out of the orbit.

CT scan

computed tomographyCTCT scans
In the case of Graves' disease, the displacement of the eye is due to abnormal connective tissue deposition in the orbit and extraocular muscles which can be visualized by CT or MRI.

Magnetic resonance imaging

MRIMRI scanmagnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
In the case of Graves' disease, the displacement of the eye is due to abnormal connective tissue deposition in the orbit and extraocular muscles which can be visualized by CT or MRI.

Cornea

cornealcorneal diseasecorneal diseases
If left untreated, exophthalmos can cause the eyelids to fail to close during sleep leading to corneal dryness and damage.

Optic nerve

optic nervesoptical nerveoptic
The process that is causing the displacement of the eye may also compress the optic nerve or ophthalmic artery, leading to blindness.

Ophthalmic artery

ophthalmicartery to the eyeLateral muscular branch
The process that is causing the displacement of the eye may also compress the optic nerve or ophthalmic artery, leading to blindness.

Visual impairment

blindblindnessvisually impaired
The process that is causing the displacement of the eye may also compress the optic nerve or ophthalmic artery, leading to blindness.

Dermoid cyst

dermoidbenign mature cystic teratomaDermoid cysts
* Dermoid cyst

Sinusitis

sinus infectionrhinosinusitischronic sinusitis