The hypothesis of Andreas Cellarius, showing the planetary motions in eccentric and epicyclical orbits.
Even very young children perform rudimentary experiments to learn about the world and how things work.
The black box model for observation (input and output are observables). When there are a feedback with some observer's control, as illustrated, the observation is also an experiment.

An experiment is a procedure carried out to support or refute a hypothesis, or determine the efficacy or likelihood of something previously untried.

- Experiment

The formulated hypothesis is then evaluated where either the hypothesis is proven to be "true" or "false" through a verifiability- or falsifiability-oriented experiment.

- Hypothesis
The hypothesis of Andreas Cellarius, showing the planetary motions in eccentric and epicyclical orbits.

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The scientific method is often represented as an ongoing process. This diagram represents one variant, and there are many others.

Scientific method

Empirical method of acquiring knowledge that has characterized the development of science since at least the 17th century .

Empirical method of acquiring knowledge that has characterized the development of science since at least the 17th century .

The scientific method is often represented as an ongoing process. This diagram represents one variant, and there are many others.
Precession of the perihelion – exaggerated in the case of Mercury, but observed in the case of S2's apsidal precession around Sagittarius A*
Einstein's prediction (1907): Light bends in a gravitational field
Model of DNA with David Deutsch, proponent of invariant scientific explanations (2009)

It involves formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental and measurement-based testing of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.

The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. Plate tectonic theory successfully explains numerous observations about the Earth, including the distribution of earthquakes, mountains, continents, and oceans.

Scientific theory

Explanation of an aspect of the natural world and universe that has been repeatedly tested and corroborated in accordance with the scientific method, using accepted protocols of observation, measurement, and evaluation of results.

Explanation of an aspect of the natural world and universe that has been repeatedly tested and corroborated in accordance with the scientific method, using accepted protocols of observation, measurement, and evaluation of results.

The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. Plate tectonic theory successfully explains numerous observations about the Earth, including the distribution of earthquakes, mountains, continents, and oceans.
The first observation of cells, by Robert Hooke, using an early microscope. This led to the development of cell theory.
In quantum mechanics, the electrons of an atom occupy orbitals around the nucleus. This image shows the orbitals of a hydrogen atom (s, p, d) at three different energy levels (1, 2, 3). Brighter areas correspond to higher probability density.
Precession of the perihelion of Mercury (exaggerated). The deviation in Mercury's position from the Newtonian prediction is about 43 arc-seconds (about two-thirds of 1/60 of a degree) per century.

Where possible, theories are tested under controlled conditions in an experiment.

The scientific method involves the proposal and testing of hypotheses, by deriving predictions from the hypotheses about the results of future experiments, then performing those experiments to see whether the predictions are valid.