Exploitation of labour

exploitationexploitation of workersexploitexploitedexploitation theoryeconomic exploitationexploitinglabour exploitationexploitation of laborexploitative
Exploitation of labour (or labor) is the act of treating one's workers unfairly for one's own benefit.wikipedia
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Karl Marx

MarxMarx, KarlMarxist
Karl Marx, who is considered the most classical and influential theorist of exploitation, did not share the same traditional account of exploitation.
In this first volume of Capital, Marx outlined his conception of surplus value and exploitation, which he argued would ultimately lead to a falling rate of profit and the collapse of industrial capitalism.

Relations of production

social relationssocial relations of productionProduction relations
The exploiters are the agents able to command goods, with revenue from their wages, that are embodied with more labour than the exploiters themselves have put forth- based on the exploitative social relations of capitalist production.
According to the crudest and most vulgar interpretations of Das Kapital, exploitation occurs only at the point of production.

Labor theory of value

labour theory of valuevaluelabor theory
This comes from Marx's labour theory of value which states that the exchange-value of a commodity is proportional to the socially necessary amount of labour time to produce the commodity.
Based on the discrepancy between the wages of labor and the value of the product, the "Ricardian socialists"—Charles Hall, Thomas Hodgskin, John Gray, and John Francis Bray, and Percy Ravenstone —applied Ricardo's theory to develop theories of exploitation.

Bourgeoisie

bourgeoisburgherburghers
The exploiters would typically be the bourgeoisie.
In the course of economic relations, the working class and the bourgeoisie continually engage in class struggle, where the capitalists exploit the workers, while the workers resist their economic exploitation, which occurs because the worker owns no means of production, and, to earn a living, seeks employment from the bourgeois capitalist; the worker produces goods and services that are property of the employer, who sells them for a price.

Labour power

labor powerlabor-powerlabour-power
Exploiters appropriate another's surplus labour, which is the amount of labour exceeding what is necessary for the reproduction of a worker's labour power and basic living conditions.
It was the most efficient form of exploitation of labour power.

Capitalist mode of production (Marxist theory)

capitalist mode of productioncapitalismcapitalist
The exploiters are the agents able to command goods, with revenue from their wages, that are embodied with more labour than the exploiters themselves have put forth- based on the exploitative social relations of capitalist production.
Many of the state capitalist theories (which actually originated in Germany, where they were already criticised by Frederick Engels) define "capital" only as a social relation of power and exploitation.

Exchange value

exchange-valueexchange-valuesValue in exchange
This comes from Marx's labour theory of value which states that the exchange-value of a commodity is proportional to the socially necessary amount of labour time to produce the commodity.
In fact, one of his major themes (the theory of "commodity fetishism") is that the system of commodity exchange that dominates capitalism obscures the class nature of that institution.

Wage slavery

wage-slaverywage slavewage slaves
Wage labour as institutionalized under today's market economic systems has been criticized, especially by both mainstream socialists and anarcho-syndicalists, utilising the pejorative term wage slavery.
The term "wage slavery" has been used to criticize exploitation of labour and social stratification, with the former seen primarily as unequal bargaining power between labor and capital (particularly when workers are paid comparatively low wages, e.g. in sweatshops) and the latter as a lack of workers' self-management, fulfilling job choices and leisure in an economy.

Proletariat

proletarianproletariansworking class
The exploited are the proletariat.
According to Marxism, capitalism is a system based on the exploitation of the proletariat by the bourgeoisie.

Eugen Böhm von Bawerk

Eugen von Böhm-BawerkBöhm-BawerkEugen Boehm von Bawerk
The theory has been opposed by Eugen Böhm von Bawerk, among others.
Included is a critique of Marx's exploitation theory.

Nike, Inc.

NikeNike Inc.Nike, Inc
For instance, critics of foreign companies allege that firms such as Nike and Gap Inc. resort to child labour and sweatshops in developing nations, paying their workers wages far lower than those that prevail in developed nations (where the products are sold).
The company has been subject to much critical coverage of the often poor working conditions and exploitation of cheap overseas labor employed in the free trade zones where their goods are typically manufactured.

Human trafficking

traffickingtrafficking in personstrafficked
Human trafficking is a crime against the person because of the violation of the victim's rights of movement through coercion and because of their commercial exploitation.

Unequal exchange

unequal termsUneven exchange
Unequal exchange is a much disputed concept which is used primarily in Marxist economics, but also in ecological economics, to denote forms of exploitation hidden in or underwriting trade.

Criticism of capitalism

corporate greedcritic of capitalismCritique of capitalism
In brief, they argue that the owners of the means of production do not work and therefore exploit the workforce.

Multinational corporation

multinationalmultinational corporationsmultinational companies
More generally, some sort of international regulation of transnational corporations is called for, such as the enforcement of the International Labour Organization's labour standards.
Without exception these early corporations created differential economic outcomes between their home country and their colonies via a process of exploiting colonial resources and labour, and investing the resultant profits and net gain in the home country.

Child labour

child laborchildrenlabor
For instance, critics of foreign companies allege that firms such as Nike and Gap Inc. resort to child labour and sweatshops in developing nations, paying their workers wages far lower than those that prevail in developed nations (where the products are sold).

Property income

property-owning capitalist classcapital and land incomepassive property income
As such, income derived through property ownership constitutes a type of "unearned income" on the basis of economic exploitation for the capitalist class that receives and lives off of property income, because its recipients receive property income by virtue of owning property regardless of their contribution to the social product.

Free trade

trade liberalizationfree-tradetrade liberalisation
Socialists frequently oppose free trade on the ground that it allows maximum exploitation of workers by capital.

American English

EnglishAmericanEnglish-language
Exploitation of labour (or labor) is the act of treating one's workers unfairly for one's own benefit.

Social relation

social interactionsocial relationssocial interactions
It is a social relationship based on an asymmetry in a power relationship between workers and their employers.

Social theory

social theoristsocial theoriessocial analysis
When speaking about exploitation, there is a direct affiliation with consumption in social theory and traditionally this would label exploitation as unfairly taking advantage of another person because of his or her inferior position, giving the exploiter the power.

Adam Smith

SmithA SmithAdam Smith’s
In analyzing exploitation, many political economists are often stuck between the explanation of the exploitation of labour given by Marx and Adam Smith.