# Exploratory data analysis

**explorative data analysisexploratorydata analysisdata exploratoryEDAexplorative methodexploratory analysisGraphical Exploratory Data Analysis**

In statistics, exploratory data analysis (EDA) is an approach to analyzing data sets to summarize their main characteristics, often with visual methods.wikipedia

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### Data analysis

**data analyticsanalysisdata analyst**

In statistics, exploratory data analysis (EDA) is an approach to analyzing data sets to summarize their main characteristics, often with visual methods.

In statistical applications, data analysis can be divided into descriptive statistics, exploratory data analysis (EDA), and confirmatory data analysis (CDA).

### Targeted projection pursuit

Targeted projection pursuit is a type of statistical technique used for exploratory data analysis, information visualization, and feature selection.

### Statistical graphics

**graphical techniquegraphicalgraphical techniques**

Typical graphical techniques used in EDA are:

Exploratory data analysis (EDA) relies heavily on such techniques.

### Principal component analysis

**principal components analysisPCAprincipal components**

PCA is mostly used as a tool in exploratory data analysis and for making predictive models.

### Median polish

The median polish is a simple and robust exploratory data analysis procedure proposed by the statistician John Tukey.

### John Tukey

**John W. TukeyTukeyJohn Wilder Tukey**

Exploratory data analysis was promoted by John Tukey to encourage statisticians to explore the data, and possibly formulate hypotheses that could lead to new data collection and experiments.

He also contributed to statistical practice and articulated the important distinction between exploratory data analysis and confirmatory data analysis, believing that much statistical methodology placed too great an emphasis on the latter.

### Ordination (statistics)

**ordinationGradient analysisordination techniques**

Ordination or gradient analysis, in multivariate analysis, is a method complementary to data clustering, and used mainly in exploratory data analysis (rather than in hypothesis testing).

### Stem-and-leaf display

**Stem-and-leaf plotStemplotstem and leaf plot**

They evolved from Arthur Bowl's work in the early 1900s, and are useful tools in exploratory data analysis.

### Machine learning

**machine-learninglearningstatistical learning**

Data mining is a field of study within machine learning, and focuses on exploratory data analysis through unsupervised learning.

### Order statistic

**order statisticsk'th-smallest of n itemsordered**

A similar important statistic in exploratory data analysis that is simply related to the order statistics is the sample interquartile range.

### TinkerPlots

TinkerPlots is exploratory data analysis and modeling software designed for use by students in grades 4 through university.

### Testing hypotheses suggested by the data

**post hocHypotheses suggested by the datapost-hoc**

In particular, he held that confusing the two types of analyses and employing them on the same set of data can lead to systematic bias owing to the issues inherent in testing hypotheses suggested by the data.

### Configural frequency analysis

Configural frequency analysis (CFA) is a method of exploratory data analysis, introduced by Gustav A. Lienert in 1969.

### Trimean

The foundations of the trimean were part of Arthur Bowley's teachings, and later popularized by statistician John Tukey in his 1977 book which has given its name to a set of techniques called exploratory data analysis.

### Box plot

**boxplotbox and whisker plotadjusted boxplots**

### Arthur Lyon Bowley

**Arthur BowleyA. L. BowleyBowley**

Bowley's teaching presaged several of the EDA ideas later popularised by John Tukey, including stemplots, decile boxplots, the seven-figure summary and trimean.

### Data dredging

**p-hackingp''-hackingdata snooping**

When neither approach is practical, one can make a clear distinction between data analyses that are confirmatory and analyses that are exploratory.

### Descriptive statistics

**descriptivedescriptive statisticstatistics**

More recently, a collection of summarisation techniques has been formulated under the heading of exploratory data analysis: an example of such a technique is the box plot.

### Statistics

**statisticalstatistical analysisstatistician**

In statistics, exploratory data analysis (EDA) is an approach to analyzing data sets to summarize their main characteristics, often with visual methods.

### Data set

**datasetdatasetsdata sets**

In statistics, exploratory data analysis (EDA) is an approach to analyzing data sets to summarize their main characteristics, often with visual methods.

### Statistical model

**modelprobabilistic modelstatistical modeling**

A statistical model can be used or not, but primarily EDA is for seeing what the data can tell us beyond the formal modeling or hypothesis testing task.

### Computational statistics

**statistical computingscientific computing and statistical practicestatistics**

Tukey's championing of EDA encouraged the development of statistical computing packages, especially S at Bell Labs.

### S (programming language)

**SS programming languageS-Lang**

Tukey's championing of EDA encouraged the development of statistical computing packages, especially S at Bell Labs.

### Bell Labs

**Bell LaboratoriesBell Telephone LaboratoriesAT&T Bell Laboratories**

Tukey's championing of EDA encouraged the development of statistical computing packages, especially S at Bell Labs.