# Exploratory data analysis

explorative data analysisexploratorydata analysisdata exploratoryEDAexplorative methodexploratory analysisGraphical Exploratory Data Analysis
In statistics, exploratory data analysis (EDA) is an approach to analyzing data sets to summarize their main characteristics, often with visual methods.wikipedia
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### Data analysis

data analyticsanalysisdata analyst
In statistics, exploratory data analysis (EDA) is an approach to analyzing data sets to summarize their main characteristics, often with visual methods.
In statistical applications, data analysis can be divided into descriptive statistics, exploratory data analysis (EDA), and confirmatory data analysis (CDA).

### Targeted projection pursuit

Targeted projection pursuit is a type of statistical technique used for exploratory data analysis, information visualization, and feature selection.

### Statistical graphics

graphical techniquegraphicalgraphical techniques
Typical graphical techniques used in EDA are:
Exploratory data analysis (EDA) relies heavily on such techniques.

### Principal component analysis

principal components analysisPCAprincipal components
PCA is mostly used as a tool in exploratory data analysis and for making predictive models.

### Median polish

The median polish is a simple and robust exploratory data analysis procedure proposed by the statistician John Tukey.

### John Tukey

John W. TukeyTukeyJohn Wilder Tukey
Exploratory data analysis was promoted by John Tukey to encourage statisticians to explore the data, and possibly formulate hypotheses that could lead to new data collection and experiments.
He also contributed to statistical practice and articulated the important distinction between exploratory data analysis and confirmatory data analysis, believing that much statistical methodology placed too great an emphasis on the latter.

### Ordination (statistics)

Ordination or gradient analysis, in multivariate analysis, is a method complementary to data clustering, and used mainly in exploratory data analysis (rather than in hypothesis testing).

### Stem-and-leaf display

Stem-and-leaf plotStemplotstem and leaf plot
They evolved from Arthur Bowl's work in the early 1900s, and are useful tools in exploratory data analysis.

### Machine learning

machine-learninglearningstatistical learning
Data mining is a field of study within machine learning, and focuses on exploratory data analysis through unsupervised learning.

### Order statistic

order statisticsk'th-smallest of n itemsordered
A similar important statistic in exploratory data analysis that is simply related to the order statistics is the sample interquartile range.

### TinkerPlots

TinkerPlots is exploratory data analysis and modeling software designed for use by students in grades 4 through university.

### Testing hypotheses suggested by the data

post hocHypotheses suggested by the datapost-hoc
In particular, he held that confusing the two types of analyses and employing them on the same set of data can lead to systematic bias owing to the issues inherent in testing hypotheses suggested by the data.

### Configural frequency analysis

Configural frequency analysis (CFA) is a method of exploratory data analysis, introduced by Gustav A. Lienert in 1969.

### Trimean

The foundations of the trimean were part of Arthur Bowley's teachings, and later popularized by statistician John Tukey in his 1977 book which has given its name to a set of techniques called exploratory data analysis.

### Arthur Lyon Bowley

Arthur BowleyA. L. BowleyBowley
Bowley's teaching presaged several of the EDA ideas later popularised by John Tukey, including stemplots, decile boxplots, the seven-figure summary and trimean.

### Data dredging

p-hackingp''-hackingdata snooping
When neither approach is practical, one can make a clear distinction between data analyses that are confirmatory and analyses that are exploratory.

### Descriptive statistics

descriptivedescriptive statisticstatistics
More recently, a collection of summarisation techniques has been formulated under the heading of exploratory data analysis: an example of such a technique is the box plot.

### Statistics

statisticalstatistical analysisstatistician
In statistics, exploratory data analysis (EDA) is an approach to analyzing data sets to summarize their main characteristics, often with visual methods.

### Data set

datasetdatasetsdata sets
In statistics, exploratory data analysis (EDA) is an approach to analyzing data sets to summarize their main characteristics, often with visual methods.

### Statistical model

modelprobabilistic modelstatistical modeling
A statistical model can be used or not, but primarily EDA is for seeing what the data can tell us beyond the formal modeling or hypothesis testing task.

### Computational statistics

statistical computingscientific computing and statistical practicestatistics
Tukey's championing of EDA encouraged the development of statistical computing packages, especially S at Bell Labs.

### S (programming language)

SS programming languageS-Lang
Tukey's championing of EDA encouraged the development of statistical computing packages, especially S at Bell Labs.

### Bell Labs

Bell LaboratoriesBell Telephone LaboratoriesAT&T Bell Laboratories
Tukey's championing of EDA encouraged the development of statistical computing packages, especially S at Bell Labs.