Extermination camp

death campsdeath campextermination campsNazi death campsNazi extermination campsNazi extermination campNazi death campdeathconcentration campextermination
Nazi Germany built extermination camps (also called death camps or killing centers) during the Holocaust in World War II, to systematically murder millions of Jews.wikipedia
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Final Solution

Final Solution to the Jewish QuestionThe Final SolutionEndlösung
The genocide of the Jews of Europe was the Third Reich's "Final Solution to the Jewish question". The Nazi Endlösung der Judenfrage (The Final Solution of the Jewish Question), based on the systematic killing of Europe's Jews by gassing, began during Operation Reinhard, after the onset of the Nazi-Soviet war of June 1941.
In 1941, wrote Raul Hilberg, in the first phase of the mass murder of Jews, the mobile killing units began to pursue their victims across occupied eastern territories; in the second phase, stretching across all of German-occupied Europe, the Jewish victims were sent on death trains to centralized extermination camps built for the purpose of systematic implementation of the Final Solution.

Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland

GhettoJewish ghettoghettoised Jews
By then, the Jews were already confined to new ghettos and interned in Nazi concentration camps along with other targeted groups, including Roma, and the Soviet POWs.
The liquidation of the Jewish ghettos across occupied Poland was closely connected with the construction of secretive death camps—industrial-scale mass-extermination facilities—built in early 1942 for the sole purpose of murder.

Operation Reinhard

Aktion ReinhardAktion ReinhardtOperation Reinhardt
The Nazi Endlösung der Judenfrage (The Final Solution of the Jewish Question), based on the systematic killing of Europe's Jews by gassing, began during Operation Reinhard, after the onset of the Nazi-Soviet war of June 1941.
This deadliest phase of the Holocaust was marked by the introduction of extermination camps.

Adolf Eichmann

EichmannEichmann trialtrial of Adolf Eichmann
Responsibility for the logistics were to be executed by the programme administrator, Adolf Eichmann.
He was tasked by SS-Obergruppenführer Reinhard Heydrich with facilitating and managing the logistics involved in the mass deportation of Jews to ghettos and extermination camps in Nazi-occupied Eastern Europe during World War II.

Wannsee Conference

WannseeHouse of the Wannsee ConferenceWannsee Villa
The camps designed specifically for the mass gassings of Jews were established in the months following the Wannsee Conference chaired by Reinhard Heydrich in January 1942 in which the principle was made clear that the Jews of Europe were to be exterminated.
In the course of the meeting, Heydrich outlined how European Jews would be rounded up and sent to extermination camps in the General Government (the occupied part of Poland), where they would be killed.

Holocaust victims

victims of the HolocaustHolocaust victimHolocaust survivor
It is now collectively known as the Holocaust, during which 11 million others were also murdered.

Serbs

SerbianSerbethnic Serb
Extermination camps were also set up by the fascist Ustaše regime of the Independent State of Croatia, a puppet state of Germany, which carried out genocide between 1941 and 1945 against Serbs, Jews, Roma and its Croat and Bosniak Muslim political opponents.
Jasenovac camp was one of the largest extermination camps in Europe and it has been referred to as "the Auschwitz of the Balkans".

Heinrich Himmler

HimmlerAlfred HimmlerH Himmler
On 13 October 1941, the SS and Police Leader Odilo Globocnik stationing in Lublin received an oral order from Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler – anticipating the fall of Moscow – to start immediate construction work on the killing centre at Bełżec in the General Government territory of occupied Poland.
On Hitler's behalf, Himmler formed the Einsatzgruppen and built extermination camps.

Extermination through labour

extermination through laborworked to deathextermination through work
Some Nazi camps, such as Auschwitz and Majdanek, served a dual purpose before the end of the war in 1945: extermination by poison gas, but also through extreme work under starvation conditions.
The Soviet Gulag is sometimes presented as a system of death camps, particularly in post-Communist Eastern European politics.

Nazi concentration camps

Nazi concentration campconcentration campconcentration camps
By then, the Jews were already confined to new ghettos and interned in Nazi concentration camps along with other targeted groups, including Roma, and the Soviet POWs. Some Nazi camps, such as Auschwitz and Majdanek, served a dual purpose before the end of the war in 1945: extermination by poison gas, but also through extreme work under starvation conditions.
Holocaust scholars draw a distinction between concentration camps (described in this article) and extermination camps, which were established by Nazi Germany for the industrial-scale mass murder of Jews in the ghettos by way of gas chambers.

Majdanek concentration camp

MajdanekMaidanekMajdanek extermination camp
Some Nazi camps, such as Auschwitz and Majdanek, served a dual purpose before the end of the war in 1945: extermination by poison gas, but also through extreme work under starvation conditions.
Majdanek, or KL Lublin, was a German concentration and extermination camp built and operated by the SS on the outskirts of the city of Lublin during the German occupation of Poland in World War II.

Belzec extermination camp

BelzecBełżecBełżec extermination camp
On 13 October 1941, the SS and Police Leader Odilo Globocnik stationing in Lublin received an oral order from Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler – anticipating the fall of Moscow – to start immediate construction work on the killing centre at Bełżec in the General Government territory of occupied Poland.
Bełżec was a Nazi German extermination camp built by the SS for the purpose of implementing the secretive Operation Reinhard, the plan to eradicate Polish Jewry, a key part of the "Final Solution" which entailed the murder of some 6 million Jews in the Holocaust.

Sobibor extermination camp

SobiborSobibórSobibór extermination camp
By mid-1942, two more death camps had been built on Polish lands for Operation Reinhard: Sobibór (ready in May 1942) under the command of Hauptsturmführer Franz Stangl, and Treblinka (operational by July 1942) under Obersturmführer Irmfried Eberl from T4, the only doctor to have served in such a capacity.
Sobibor was a Nazi German extermination camp built and operated by the SS as part of Operation Reinhard.

SS-Totenkopfverbände

TotenkopfverbändeSSDeath's Head Units
The Reinhard extermination camps were under Globocnik's direct command; each of them was run by 20 to 35 men from the SS-Totenkopfverbände branch of the Schutzstaffel, augmented by about one hundred Trawnikis – auxiliaries mostly from Soviet Ukraine, and up to one thousand Sonderkommando slave labourers each.
SS-Totenkopfverbände (SS-TV; literally "Death's Head Units") was the SS organization responsible for administering the Nazi concentration camps and extermination camps for Nazi Germany, among similar duties.

Sonderkommando

Sonderkommandosdeath detachmentforced to work
The Reinhard extermination camps were under Globocnik's direct command; each of them was run by 20 to 35 men from the SS-Totenkopfverbände branch of the Schutzstaffel, augmented by about one hundred Trawnikis – auxiliaries mostly from Soviet Ukraine, and up to one thousand Sonderkommando slave labourers each.
Sonderkommandos (, special unit) were work units made up of German Nazi death camp prisoners.

Łódź

LodzŁódź, PolandLódz
Notably, the order preceded the Wannsee Conference by three months, but the gassings at Kulmhof north of Łódź using gas vans began already in December, under Sturmbannführer Herbert Lange.
Several concentration camps and death camps arose in the city's vicinity for the non-Jewish inhabitants of the regions, among them the infamous Radogoszcz prison and several minor camps for the Romani people and for Polish children.

Lublin Reservation

Nisko PlanLublin districtDistrict Lublin
On 13 October 1941, the SS and Police Leader Odilo Globocnik stationing in Lublin received an oral order from Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler – anticipating the fall of Moscow – to start immediate construction work on the killing centre at Bełżec in the General Government territory of occupied Poland.
The main camp of the entire complex was set up in Bełżec initially (before the construction of death camp) for the Jewish forced labor.

Gas chamber

gas chambersgassedlethal gas
The victims of death camps were primarily killed by gassing, either in permanent installations constructed for this specific purpose, or by means of gas vans.
Starting in 1941, gas chambers were used at extermination camps in Poland for the mass killing of Jews, Roma, and other victims of the Holocaust.

SS and police leader

Higher SS and Police LeaderHSSPFHöherer SS- und Polizeiführer
On 13 October 1941, the SS and Police Leader Odilo Globocnik stationing in Lublin received an oral order from Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler – anticipating the fall of Moscow – to start immediate construction work on the killing centre at Bełżec in the General Government territory of occupied Poland.
The SS and Police Leaders were the overseeing authority of the Jewish ghettos in Poland and, as such, directly coordinated deportations to Nazi extermination camps with the administrative help of the RSHA.

Life unworthy of life

unworthy of lifeLebensunwertes LebenLife Unworthy of Living
After the invasion of Poland in September 1939, the secret Aktion T4 euthanasia programme – the systematic murder of German, Austrian and Polish hospital patients with mental or physical disabilities – was initiated by the SS in order to eliminate "life unworthy of life" (Lebensunwertes Leben), a Nazi designation for people who had no right to life.
The methods used initially at German hospitals such as lethal injections and bottled gas poisoning were expanded to form the basis for the creation of extermination camps where the gas chambers were built from scratch to conduct the extermination of the Jews, Romani, communists, anarchists, and political dissidents.

Chełmno extermination camp

ChełmnoChelmno extermination campChelmno
Notably, the order preceded the Wannsee Conference by three months, but the gassings at Kulmhof north of Łódź using gas vans began already in December, under Sturmbannführer Herbert Lange.
Chełmno extermination camp (Vernichtungslager Kulmhof), built during World War II, was the first of the Nazi German extermination camps and was situated 50 km north of the metropolitan city of Łódź (at the time renamed to Litzmannstadt), near the village of Chełmno nad Nerem (Kulmhof an der Nehr).

World War II

Second World WarwarWWII
Nazi Germany built extermination camps (also called death camps or killing centers) during the Holocaust in World War II, to systematically murder millions of Jews.
In addition to concentration camps, death camps were created in Nazi Germany to exterminate people at an industrial scale.

Nazi Germany

Third ReichGermanGermany
The genocide of the Jews of Europe was the Third Reich's "Final Solution to the Jewish question". Nazi Germany built extermination camps (also called death camps or killing centers) during the Holocaust in World War II, to systematically murder millions of Jews.
Many others were imprisoned, worked to death, or murdered in Nazi concentration camps and extermination camps.

Romani people

RomaniRomaGypsy
Extermination camps were also set up by the fascist Ustaše regime of the Independent State of Croatia, a puppet state of Germany, which carried out genocide between 1941 and 1945 against Serbs, Jews, Roma and its Croat and Bosniak Muslim political opponents. Others were murdered at the death camps as well, including Poles, homosexuals, Soviet POWs, and Roma.
In 1935, the Nuremberg laws stripped the Romani people living in Nazi Germany of their citizenship, after which they were subjected to violence, imprisonment in concentration camps and later genocide in extermination camps.

Trawniki men

TrawnikisTrawniki guardsUkrainian auxiliaries
The Reinhard extermination camps were under Globocnik's direct command; each of them was run by 20 to 35 men from the SS-Totenkopfverbände branch of the Schutzstaffel, augmented by about one hundred Trawnikis – auxiliaries mostly from Soviet Ukraine, and up to one thousand Sonderkommando slave labourers each.
They also served at extermination camps and played an important role in the annihilation of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (see the Stroop Report), among others.