External support

In cardiac surgery and vascular surgery, external support (or external stent) is a type of scaffold made of metal or plastic material that is inserted over the outside of the vein graft in order to decrease the intermediate and late vein graft failure after bypass surgery (e.g. CABG).wikipedia
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Coronary artery bypass surgery

heart bypassbypass surgeryheart bypass surgery
In cardiac surgery and vascular surgery, external support (or external stent) is a type of scaffold made of metal or plastic material that is inserted over the outside of the vein graft in order to decrease the intermediate and late vein graft failure after bypass surgery (e.g. CABG).
External support may be placed on the vein prior to grafting into the coronary circulation of the patient.

Vein graft failure

chronic graft occlusionGraft failurevein graft disease
In cardiac surgery and vascular surgery, external support (or external stent) is a type of scaffold made of metal or plastic material that is inserted over the outside of the vein graft in order to decrease the intermediate and late vein graft failure after bypass surgery (e.g. CABG). These new hemodynamic conditions cause intimal hyperplasia and atherosclerosis that cause intermediate and late vein graft failure.
Providing the vein with external support prior to grafting has shown to reduce intimal hyperplasia formation and improve the hemodynamics within the graft.

Cardiac surgery

open heart surgeryheart surgeryopen-heart surgery
In cardiac surgery and vascular surgery, external support (or external stent) is a type of scaffold made of metal or plastic material that is inserted over the outside of the vein graft in order to decrease the intermediate and late vein graft failure after bypass surgery (e.g. CABG).

Vascular surgery

vascular surgeonvascularvascular surgeons
In cardiac surgery and vascular surgery, external support (or external stent) is a type of scaffold made of metal or plastic material that is inserted over the outside of the vein graft in order to decrease the intermediate and late vein graft failure after bypass surgery (e.g. CABG).

Vein

veinsvenousvenous system
In cardiac surgery and vascular surgery, external support (or external stent) is a type of scaffold made of metal or plastic material that is inserted over the outside of the vein graft in order to decrease the intermediate and late vein graft failure after bypass surgery (e.g. CABG).

Graft (surgery)

graftgraftsgrafting
In cardiac surgery and vascular surgery, external support (or external stent) is a type of scaffold made of metal or plastic material that is inserted over the outside of the vein graft in order to decrease the intermediate and late vein graft failure after bypass surgery (e.g. CABG).

Bypass surgery

bypassarterial bypassby-pass surgery
In cardiac surgery and vascular surgery, external support (or external stent) is a type of scaffold made of metal or plastic material that is inserted over the outside of the vein graft in order to decrease the intermediate and late vein graft failure after bypass surgery (e.g. CABG).

Stent

stentsstent graftstenting
An external support (external stent) should be differentiated from a stent.

Blood vessel

vascularblood vesselsintravascular
An external support is placed on the outside of the vessel whereas a stent is inserted into the lumen of a vessel.

Lumen (anatomy)

lumenluminallumina
An external support is placed on the outside of the vessel whereas a stent is inserted into the lumen of a vessel.

Coronary circulation

coronary arteriescoronarycoronary artery
In order to bypass the coronary obstruction and restore blood flow, veins are transferred and integrated into the arterial circulation, where they exposed to high pressure and flow.

Hemodynamics

blood flowhemodynamichaemodynamic
These new hemodynamic conditions cause intimal hyperplasia and atherosclerosis that cause intermediate and late vein graft failure.

Intimal hyperplasia

neointimal hyperplasia
These new hemodynamic conditions cause intimal hyperplasia and atherosclerosis that cause intermediate and late vein graft failure.

Atherosclerosis

atheroscleroticatherogenesisatherosclerotic plaques
These new hemodynamic conditions cause intimal hyperplasia and atherosclerosis that cause intermediate and late vein graft failure.

Thrombosis

blood clotsthromboticblood clot
The rational was that it will protect the vein from intimal damage and thrombosis by aiding with the adaptation of the vein toward the arterial environment.

Tissue culture

culturedcultureanimal tissue culture
As shown both in human tissue cultures and experimental models.

Model organism

animal modelmodel organismsanimal models
As shown both in human tissue cultures and experimental models.

Clinical trial

clinical trialsclinical studiesclinical study
However, until recently there were a limited number of clinical studies that showed less positive results.

Fibrin glue

fibrin sealantfibrin tissue adhesive
It was hypothesized that graft patency rates were lower with external support, because of aggressive over constriction of the vein graft, unsuitable material of the devices and the use of fibrin glue that has shown to cause tissue damage, fibrosis and intimal hyperplasia.

Fibrosis

fibroticscarringfibrogenic
It was hypothesized that graft patency rates were lower with external support, because of aggressive over constriction of the vein graft, unsuitable material of the devices and the use of fibrin glue that has shown to cause tissue damage, fibrosis and intimal hyperplasia.