Extinct language

extinctdead languageextinct languagesextinctiondeadextinct relativesbecoming extinctdead languagesdead'' languagesdead,' language
An extinct language is a language that no longer has any speakers, especially if the language has no living descendants.wikipedia
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Indigenous languages of the Americas

Native American languagesindigenous languagesNative American language
For example, many Native American languages were replaced by English, French, Portuguese, Spanish or Dutch as a result of colonization.

Sacred language

liturgical languageliturgicalritual language
In contrast to an extinct language, which no longer has any speakers, or any written use, a historical language may remain in use as a literary or liturgical language long after it ceases to be spoken natively.
In some cases, the sacred language is a dead language.

Classical language

classical languagesclassicalclassics
Such languages are sometimes also referred to as "dead languages", but more typically as classical languages.
Classical languages are typically dead languages, or show a high degree of diglossia, as the spoken varieties of the language diverge further away from the classical written language over time.

Language revitalization

Language revivalrevitalizationrevival
Language revival is the attempt to re-introduce a recently extinct language in everyday use by a new generation of native speakers.
Some argue for a distinction between language revival (the resurrection of a dead language with no existing native speakers) and language revitalization (the rescue of a "dying" language).

Hebrew language

HebrewHebrew grammarHeb.
Hebrew is an example of a liturgical language that has successfully been revived for everyday use.
Hebrew is the only Canaanite language still spoken, and the only truly successful example of a revived dead language.

Klallam language

KlallamClallamClallam language
Klallam, Clallam, Na'klallam or S'klallam (endonym: Nəxʷsƛ̓ay̓əmúcən), now extinct, was a Straits Salishan language that was traditionally spoken by the Klallam peoples at Becher Bay on Vancouver Island in British Columbia and across the Strait of Juan de Fuca on the north coast of the Olympic Peninsula in Washington.

Salishan languages

SalishanSalishSalishan language
Those languages considered extinct are often referred to as 'sleeping languages,' in that no speakers exist currently.

Formosan languages

Formosan languageFormosanaboriginal languages
Of the approximately 26 languages of the Taiwanese aborigines, at least ten are extinct, another four (perhaps five) are moribund, and all others are to some degree endangered.

Language death

Normally the transition from a spoken to an extinct language occurs when a language undergoes language death by being directly replaced by a different one.


languageslinguisticlinguistic diversity
An extinct language is a language that no longer has any speakers, especially if the language has no living descendants.
Language loss occurs when the language has no more native speakers, and becomes a dead language.

Creole language

creolecreolescreole languages
Because of that prejudice, many of the creoles that arose in the European colonies, having been stigmatized, have become extinct.

Aka-Bo language

Aka-BoBoBo language
The Bo language, Aka-Bo (also known as Ba), is an extinct Great Andamanese language.

Unclassified language

unclassifiedunclassified languagesnot been classified
Some poorly known extinct languages, such as Gutian and Cacán, are simply unclassifiable, and it is unlikely the situation will ever change.

Language shift

In the modern period, languages have typically become extinct as a result of the process of cultural assimilation leading to language shift, and the gradual abandonment of a native language in favour of a foreign lingua franca, largely those of European countries.

Pataxó language

Pataxó Hã-Ha-HãePatachoPataxó
Pataxó (Patashó), or Pataxó Hã-Ha-Hãe (Pataxó-Hãhaãi), is an extinct native language in Brazil formerly spoken by the Pataxó people of the Bahia region, and of Minas Gerais, Pôsto Paraguassu in Itabuna municipality.

Corpus language

corpuscorpus of the language
Historical languages with living descendants that have undergone significant language change may be considered "extinct", especially in cases where they did not leave a corpus of literature or liturgy that remained in widespread use (see corpus language), as is the case with Old English or Old High German relative to their contemporary descendants, English and German.
Not all extinct languages are "corpus languages," since many languages have disappeared leaving no, or very inadequate, recorded production of their speakers.

A-Pucikwar language

The Pucikwar language, A-Pucikwar, is an extinct language of the Andaman Islands, India, formerly spoken by the Pucikwar people on the south coast of Middle Andaman, the northeast coast of South Andaman, and on Baratang Island.

Mesmes language

The Mesmes language is an extinct West Gurage language, one of the Ethiopian Semitic languages spoken in Ethiopia.

List of languages by time of extinction

This is a list of extinct languages sorted by their time of extinction.

Endangered language

endangeredmoribundendangered languages
Language loss occurs when the language has no more native speakers and becomes a "dead language".

Genetic relationship (linguistics)

genetic relationshipgeneticgenetically related
An extinct language is a language that no longer has any speakers, especially if the language has no living descendants.

First language

mother tonguenative languagenative speaker
In contrast, a dead language is "one that is no longer the native language of any community", even if it is still in use, like Latin.

Modern language

Modern Languagesliving languagemodern
Languages that currently have living native speakers are sometimes called modern languages to contrast them with dead languages, especially in educational contexts.