Extinction

extinctspecies extinctionspecies lossextinctionsextinct speciesextirpatedPlanned extinctiondie out
In biology, extinction is the termination of a kind of organism or of a group of kinds (taxon), usually a species.wikipedia
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Biology

biologicalBiological Sciencesbiologist
In biology, extinction is the termination of a kind of organism or of a group of kinds (taxon), usually a species.
Biology recognizes the cell as the basic unit of life, genes as the basic unit of heredity, and evolution as the engine that propels the creation and extinction of species.

Functional extinction

functionally extinctcapacity to breed and recoverfunctionally extinction
The moment of extinction is generally considered to be the death of the last individual of the species, although the capacity to breed and recover may have been lost before this point.
Functional extinction is the extinction of a species or other taxon such that:

Endling

last individuallast known individuallast
The moment of extinction is generally considered to be the death of the last individual of the species, although the capacity to breed and recover may have been lost before this point.
Once the endling dies, the species becomes extinct.

Lazarus taxon

Lazarus taxaLazarus speciesLazarus effect
This difficulty leads to phenomena such as Lazarus taxa, where a species presumed extinct abruptly "reappears" (typically in the fossil record) after a period of apparent absence.
Lazarus taxa are observational artifacts that appear to occur either because of (local) extinction, later resupplied, or as a sampling artifact.

Evolution

evolvedtheory of evolutionevolutionary
Through evolution, species arise through the process of speciation—where new varieties of organisms arise and thrive when they are able to find and exploit an ecological niche—and species become extinct when they are no longer able to survive in changing conditions or against superior competition.
Existing patterns of biodiversity have been shaped by repeated formations of new species (speciation), changes within species (anagenesis) and loss of species (extinction) throughout the evolutionary history of life on Earth.

Pseudoextinction

phyletically extinct
Pinpointing the extinction (or pseudoextinction) of a species requires a clear definition of that species.
Pseudoextinction (or phyletic extinction) of a species occurs when all members of the species are extinct, but members of a daughter species remain alive.

Life

livinglife on Earthbiota
More than 99 percent of all species, amounting to over five billion species, that ever lived on Earth are estimated to have died out.
Extinction is the term describing the dying out of a group or taxon, usually a species.

Organism

organismsflora and faunaliving organisms
In biology, extinction is the termination of a kind of organism or of a group of kinds (taxon), usually a species.
More than 99% of all species, amounting to over five billion species, that ever lived are estimated to be extinct.

Endangered species

endangeredprotected speciesEN
Those that are extant but threatened by extinction are referred to as threatened or endangered species.
An endangered species is a species which has been categorized as very likely to become extinct in the near future.

Speciation

divergedspeciatedspeciate
Through evolution, species arise through the process of speciation—where new varieties of organisms arise and thrive when they are able to find and exploit an ecological niche—and species become extinct when they are no longer able to survive in changing conditions or against superior competition.
This has a snowball effect, with large species growing at the expense of the smaller, rarer species, eventually driving them to extinction.

Conservation status

categorizedendangeredvulnerable
These are reflected by the creation of the conservation status "extinct in the wild" (EW).
The conservation status of a group of organisms (for instance, a species) indicates whether the group still exists and how likely the group is to become extinct in the near future.

Local extinction

extirpatedextirpationlocally extinct
In ecology, extinction is often used informally to refer to local extinction, in which a species ceases to exist in the chosen area of study, but may still exist elsewhere.
Local extinctions are contrasted with global extinctions.

Zoology

zoologistzoologicalzoologists
When possible, modern zoological institutions try to maintain a viable population for species preservation and possible future reintroduction to the wild, through use of carefully planned breeding programs.
Zoology is the branch of biology that studies the animal kingdom, including the structure, embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and distribution of all animals, both living and extinct, and how they interact with their ecosystems.

Global Assessment Report on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services

full reportglobal biodiversity assessmentThe Global Assessment Report on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services
According to the 2019 Global Assessment Report on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services by IPBES, the biomass of wild mammals has fallen by 82%, natural ecosystems have lost about half their area and a million species are at risk of extinction—all largely as a result of human actions.
An estimated 82 percent of wild mammal biomass has been lost, while 40 percent of amphibians, almost a third of reef-building corals, more than a third of marine mammals, and 10 percent of all insects are threatened with extinction.

Hyracotherium

early horseHyracotheriinae
For example, it is sometimes claimed that the extinct Hyracotherium, which was an early horse that shares a common ancestor with the modern horse, is pseudoextinct, rather than extinct, because there are several extant species of Equus, including zebra and donkey; however, as fossil species typically leave no genetic material behind, one cannot say whether Hyracotherium evolved into more modern horse species or merely evolved from a common ancestor with modern horses.
Hyracotherium ("hyrax-like beast") is an extinct genus of very small (about 60 cm in length) perissodactyl ungulates that was found in the London Clay formation.

Competition (biology)

competitioncompetecompetitors
Through evolution, species arise through the process of speciation—where new varieties of organisms arise and thrive when they are able to find and exploit an ecological niche—and species become extinct when they are no longer able to survive in changing conditions or against superior competition.
According to the competitive exclusion principle, species less suited to compete for resources should either adapt or die out, although competitive exclusion is rarely found in natural ecosystems.

Tetrapod

tetrapodsTetrapodaland vertebrates
The coelacanth, a fish related to lungfish and tetrapods, was considered to have been extinct since the end of the Cretaceous Period until 1938 when a specimen was found, off the Chalumna River (now Tyolomnqa) on the east coast of South Africa.
It includes extant and extinct amphibians, reptiles (including dinosaurs and therefore birds), and mammals.

Equus (genus)

Equusequineequines
For example, it is sometimes claimed that the extinct Hyracotherium, which was an early horse that shares a common ancestor with the modern horse, is pseudoextinct, rather than extinct, because there are several extant species of Equus, including zebra and donkey; however, as fossil species typically leave no genetic material behind, one cannot say whether Hyracotherium evolved into more modern horse species or merely evolved from a common ancestor with modern horses.
Like Equidae more broadly, Equus has numerous extinct species known only from fossils.

Species

specificspecific epithetspecific name
In biology, extinction is the termination of a kind of organism or of a group of kinds (taxon), usually a species. Pinpointing the extinction (or pseudoextinction) of a species requires a clear definition of that species.
Genes can sometimes be exchanged between species by horizontal gene transfer; new species can arise rapidly through hybridisation and polyploidy; and species may become extinct for a variety of reasons.

Lungfish

DipnoidipnoanDipteriformes
The coelacanth, a fish related to lungfish and tetrapods, was considered to have been extinct since the end of the Cretaceous Period until 1938 when a specimen was found, off the Chalumna River (now Tyolomnqa) on the east coast of South Africa.
While vicariance would suggest this represents an ancient distribution limited to the Mesozoic supercontinent Gondwana, the fossil record suggests advanced lungfish had a widespread freshwater distribution and the current distribution of modern lungfish species reflects extinction of many lineages subsequent to the breakup of Pangaea, Gondwana and Laurasia.

Neontology

extantlivingextant species
Species which are not extinct are termed extant.

Anagenesis

anageneticanageneticallyanagenetic evolution
Effectively, the old taxon vanishes, transformed (anagenesis) into a successor, or split into more than one (cladogenesis).
The evolution of this group, without extinction or species selection, is anagenesis.

Extinction debt

Dead Clade WalkingDead Clades Walkingextinction
Extinction may occur a long time after the events that set it in motion, a phenomenon known as extinction debt.
In ecology, extinction debt is the future extinction of species due to events in the past.

Conservation biology

conservationAnimal conservationconservationist
By contrast, conservation biology uses the extinction vortex model to classify extinctions by cause.
Conservation biology is the management of nature and of Earth's biodiversity with the aim of protecting species, their habitats, and ecosystems from excessive rates of extinction and the erosion of biotic interactions.

Human extinction

extinctionextinction of the human raceOmnicide
When concerns about human extinction have been raised, for example in Sir Martin Rees' 2003 book Our Final Hour, those concerns lie with the effects of climate change or technological disaster.
In futures studies, human extinction is the hypothetical end of the human species.