Extracellular matrix

ECMmatrixextracellular matricesextracellular matrix (ECM)intercellular matrixextracellularextracellular matrix proteinextra cellular matrixextracellular matrix proteinsextracellular space
In biology, the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a three-dimensional network of extracellular macromolecules, such as collagen, enzymes, and glycoproteins, that provide structural and biochemical support of surrounding cells.wikipedia
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Basement membrane

basement membranesbasement membrane zonecapillary basement membranes
The animal extracellular matrix includes the interstitial matrix and the basement membrane. In the extracellular matrix, especially basement membranes, the multi-domain proteins perlecan, agrin, and collagen XVIII are the main proteins to which heparan sulfate is attached.
The basement membrane is a thin, fibrous, extracellular matrix of tissue that separates the lining of an internal or external body surface from underlying connective tissue in metazoans (animals).

Matrix (biology)

matrixmatricesorganic matrix
The animal extracellular matrix includes the interstitial matrix and the basement membrane.
In biology, matrix (plural: matrices) is the material (or tissue) in animal or plant l structure of connective tissues is an extracellular matrix.

Extracellular

extracellular spaceextracellular environment[2
In biology, the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a three-dimensional network of extracellular macromolecules, such as collagen, enzymes, and glycoproteins, that provide structural and biochemical support of surrounding cells.
This space is usually taken to be outside the plasma membranes, and occupied by fluid (see extracellular matrix).

Ground substance

extrafibrillar matrixparticular substance
Each type of connective tissue in animals has a type of ECM: collagen fibers and bone mineral comprise the ECM of bone tissue; reticular fibers and ground substance comprise the ECM of loose connective tissue; and blood plasma is the ECM of blood.
Ground substance is an amorphous gel-like substance in the extracellular space that contains all components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) except for fibrous materials such as collagen and elastin.

Biofilm

biofilmsbacterial matslime
Some single-celled organisms adopt multicellular biofilms in which the cells are embedded in an ECM composed primarily of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS).
These adherent cells become embedded within a slimy extracellular matrix that is composed of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS).

Bone mineral

apatitebonebone minerals
Each type of connective tissue in animals has a type of ECM: collagen fibers and bone mineral comprise the ECM of bone tissue; reticular fibers and ground substance comprise the ECM of loose connective tissue; and blood plasma is the ECM of blood.
The bone salt and collagen fibers together constitute the extracellular matrix of bone tissue.

Cell wall

cell wallsplant cell wallprimary cell wall
The plant ECM includes cell wall components, like cellulose, in addition to more complex signaling molecules.
By the 1980s, some authors suggested replacing the term "cell wall", particularly as it was used for plants, with the more precise term "extracellular matrix", as used for animal cells, but others preferred the older term.

Perlecan

HSPG2
In the extracellular matrix, especially basement membranes, the multi-domain proteins perlecan, agrin, and collagen XVIII are the main proteins to which heparan sulfate is attached.
Perlecan is a large multidomain (five domains, labeled I-V) proteoglycan that binds to and cross-links many extracellular matrix (ECM) components and cell-surface molecules.

Collagen

procollagencollagenscollagen fibers
In biology, the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a three-dimensional network of extracellular macromolecules, such as collagen, enzymes, and glycoproteins, that provide structural and biochemical support of surrounding cells. Each type of connective tissue in animals has a type of ECM: collagen fibers and bone mineral comprise the ECM of bone tissue; reticular fibers and ground substance comprise the ECM of loose connective tissue; and blood plasma is the ECM of blood.
Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular matrix in the various connective tissues in the body.

Hyaluronic acid

hyaluronanhyaluronateHyalgan
Hyaluronic acid (or "hyaluronan") is a polysaccharide consisting of alternating residues of D-glucuronic acid and N-acetylglucosamine, and unlike other GAGs, is not found as a proteoglycan.
As one of the chief components of the extracellular matrix, hyaluronan contributes significantly to cell proliferation and migration, and may also be involved in the progression of some malignant tumors.

Angiogenesis

angiogenicvascularizationvascularized
It is in this form that HS binds to a variety of protein ligands and regulates a wide variety of biological activities, including developmental processes, angiogenesis, blood coagulation, and tumour metastasis.
These cells begin laying collagen fibers into the core to provide an extracellular matrix for growth of the vessel lumen.

Metastasis

metastaticmetastasesmetastasized
It is in this form that HS binds to a variety of protein ligands and regulates a wide variety of biological activities, including developmental processes, angiogenesis, blood coagulation, and tumour metastasis.
To do so, malignant cells break away from the primary tumor and attach to and degrade proteins that make up the surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM), which separates the tumor from adjoining tissues.

Loose connective tissue

areolarareolar connective tissueareolar tissue
Each type of connective tissue in animals has a type of ECM: collagen fibers and bone mineral comprise the ECM of bone tissue; reticular fibers and ground substance comprise the ECM of loose connective tissue; and blood plasma is the ECM of blood.
It is a pliable, mesh-like tissue with a fluid matrix and functions to cushion and protect body organs.

Animal

Animaliaanimalsmetazoa
They are present in the cornea, cartilage, bones, and the horns of animals.
All animals are composed of cells, surrounded by a characteristic extracellular matrix composed of collagen and elastic glycoproteins.

Fibroblast

fibroblastsfeeder cellfibroblastic
Elastins are synthesized by fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells.
A fibroblast is a type of biological cell that synthesizes the extracellular matrix and collagen, produces the structural framework (stroma) for animal tissues, and plays a critical role in wound healing.

Elastin

tropoelastinELNelastic
Elastins, in contrast to collagens, give elasticity to tissues, allowing them to stretch when needed and then return to their original state.
Elastin is a key protein of the extracellular matrix.

Keratan sulfate

keratan sulphatekeratan
Keratan sulfates have a variable sulfate content and, unlike many other GAGs, do not contain uronic acid.
Keratan sulfate occurs as a proteoglycan (PG) in which KS chains are attached to cell-surface or extracellular matrix proteins, termed core proteins.

Fibronectin

FN1fibronectins
Fibronectins are glycoproteins that connect cells with collagen fibers in the ECM, allowing cells to move through the ECM.
Fibronectin is a high-molecular weight (~440kDa) glycoprotein of the extracellular matrix that binds to membrane-spanning receptor proteins called integrins.

Laminin

lamininsLaminin 5laminin-1
Laminins are proteins found in the basal laminae of virtually all animals.
Laminins are high-molecular weight (~400 to ~900 kDa) proteins of the extracellular matrix.

Exocytosis

releaseneurotransmitter releaseexocytotic
Components of the ECM are produced intracellularly by resident cells and secreted into the ECM via exocytosis.
Constitutive exocytosis is performed by all cells and serves the release of components of the extracellular matrix or delivery of newly synthesized membrane proteins that are incorporated in the plasma membrane after the fusion of the transport vesicle.

Basal lamina

basement membranebasalbasal layer
Laminins are proteins found in the basal laminae of virtually all animals.
The basal lamina is a layer of extracellular matrix secreted by the epithelial cells, on which the epithelium sits.

Proteoglycan

proteoglycansglyoproteinsproteochondroitin sulfate
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are carbohydrate polymers and mostly attached to extracellular matrix proteins to form proteoglycans (hyaluronic acid is a notable exception, see below).
Proteoglycans are a major component of the animal extracellular matrix, the "filler" substance existing between cells in an organism.

Lung

lungspulmonaryright lung
This is useful in blood vessels, the lungs, in skin, and the ligamentum nuchae, and these tissues contain high amounts of elastins.
Elastin is the key protein of the extracellular matrix and is the main component of the elastic fibres.

Skin

cutaneousskin cellanimal skin
This is useful in blood vessels, the lungs, in skin, and the ligamentum nuchae, and these tissues contain high amounts of elastins.
The dermis provides tensile strength and elasticity to the skin through an extracellular matrix composed of collagen fibrils, microfibrils, and elastic fibers, embedded in hyaluronan and proteoglycans.

Inflammation

inflammatoryinflammatory responseinflamed
Hyaluronic acid acts as an environmental cue that regulates cell behavior during embryonic development, healing processes, inflammation, and tumor development.