A report on Extracellular matrix

Illustration depicting extracellular matrix (basement membrane and interstitial matrix) in relation to epithelium, endothelium and connective tissue
1: Microfilaments 2: Phospholipid Bilayer 3: Integrin 4: Proteoglycan 5: Fibronectin 6: Collagen 7: Elastin

Three-dimensional network consisting of extracellular macromolecules and minerals, such as collagen, enzymes, glycoproteins and hydroxyapatite that provide structural and biochemical support to surrounding cells.

- Extracellular matrix
Illustration depicting extracellular matrix (basement membrane and interstitial matrix) in relation to epithelium, endothelium and connective tissue

53 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Tropocollagen molecule: three left-handed procollagens (red, green, blue) join to form a right-handed triple helical tropocollagen.

Collagen

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Tropocollagen molecule: three left-handed procollagens (red, green, blue) join to form a right-handed triple helical tropocollagen.
Action of lysyl oxidase
Three polypeptides coil to form tropocollagen. Many tropocollagens then bind together to form a fibril, and many of these then form a fibre.
The D-period of collagen fibrils results in visible 67nm bands when observed by electron microscopy.
A salami and the collagen casing (below) it came in

Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular matrix found in the body's various connective tissues.

The epithelium and endobasement membrane in relation to epithelium and endothelium. Also seen are other extracellular matrix components

Basement membrane

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The epithelium and endobasement membrane in relation to epithelium and endothelium. Also seen are other extracellular matrix components

The basement membrane is a thin, pliable sheet-like type of extracellular matrix that provides cell and tissue support and acts as a platform for complex signalling.

crystal structure of the filamin a repeat 21 complexed with the integrin beta7 cytoplasmic tail peptide

Integrin

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crystal structure of the filamin a repeat 21 complexed with the integrin beta7 cytoplasmic tail peptide
Integrins are localised at the growth cone of regenerating neurons.

Integrins are transmembrane receptors that facilitate cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion.

Types of epithelium

Epithelium

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One of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.

One of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.

Types of epithelium
Summary showing different epithelial cells/tissues and their characteristics.
Forms of secretion in glandular tissue
Different characteristics of glands of the body
Epithelial cell infected with ''Chlamydia pneumoniae
Squamous epithelium 100x
Human cheek cells (Nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium) 500x
Histology of female urethra showing transitional epithelium
Histology of sweat gland showing stratified cuboidal epithelium

It is a thin, continuous, protective layer of compactly packed cells with a little intercellular matrix.

Immunofluorescence coloration of actin (green) and the focal adhesion protein vinculin (red) in a fibroblast. Focal adhesions are visible as red dots at the end of the green bundles.

Focal adhesion

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Immunofluorescence coloration of actin (green) and the focal adhesion protein vinculin (red) in a fibroblast. Focal adhesions are visible as red dots at the end of the green bundles.

In cell biology, focal adhesions (also cell–matrix adhesions or FAs) are large macromolecular assemblies through which mechanical force and regulatory signals are transmitted between the extracellular matrix (ECM) and an interacting cell.

Deep wound on shin with stitches healing over five weeks

Wound healing

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Wound healing refers to a living organism's replacement of destroyed or damaged tissue by newly produced tissue.

Wound healing refers to a living organism's replacement of destroyed or damaged tissue by newly produced tissue.

Deep wound on shin with stitches healing over five weeks
Approximate times of the different phases of wound healing on a logarithmic scale, with faded intervals marking substantial variation, depending mainly on wound size and healing conditions, but image does not include major impairments that cause chronic wounds.
A fluorescence micrograph of cells in Drosophila larvae healing after a puncture wound. The arrow points to cells that have fused to form syncytia, and the arrowheads point to cells that are oriented to face the wound.
A scab covering a healing wound

Proliferation (growth of new tissue): In this phase, angiogenesis, collagen deposition, granulation tissue formation, epithelialization, and wound contraction occur. In angiogenesis, vascular endothelial cells form new blood vessels. In fibroplasia and granulation tissue formation, fibroblasts grow and form a new, provisional extracellular matrix (ECM) by excreting collagen and fibronectin. Concurrently, re-epithelialization of the epidermis occurs, in which epithelial cells proliferate and 'crawl' atop the wound bed, providing cover for the new tissue. In wound contraction, myofibroblasts decrease the size of the wound by gripping the wound edges and contracting using a mechanism that resembles that in smooth muscle cells. When the cells' roles are close to complete, unneeded cells undergo apoptosis.

The modular structure of fibronectin and its binding domains

Fibronectin

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The modular structure of fibronectin and its binding domains

Fibronectin is a high-molecular weight (~500-~600 kDa) glycoprotein of the extracellular matrix that binds to membrane-spanning receptor proteins called integrins.

crystal structure of three consecutive laminin-type epidermal growth factor-like (le) modules of laminin gamma1 chain harboring the nidogen binding site

Laminin

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crystal structure of three consecutive laminin-type epidermal growth factor-like (le) modules of laminin gamma1 chain harboring the nidogen binding site
Schematic diagram of the structure of laminins and the different bonds with other molecules
laminin alpha 2 chain lg4-5 domain pair, ca1 site mutant
the structure of the ligand-binding domain of neurexin 1beta: regulation of lns domain function by alternative splicing
Schematic_Diagram_of_Laminin_111
Illustration of the laminin-111 complex depicting the domain organization.

Laminins are a family of glycoproteins of the extracellular matrix of all animals.

Diagram of the human lungs with the respiratory tract visible, and different colours for each lobe

Lung

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The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and most animals, some fish and some snails.

The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and most animals, some fish and some snails.

Diagram of the human lungs with the respiratory tract visible, and different colours for each lobe
Cross-sectional detail of the lung
Thick elastic fibres from the visceral pleura (outer lining) of lung
TEM image of collagen fibres in a cross sectional slice of mammalian lung tissue.
A lobule of the lung enclosed in septa and supplied by a terminal bronchiole that branches into the respiratory bronchioles. Each respiratory bronchiole supplies the alveoli held in each acinus accompanied by a pulmonary artery branch.
Alveoli and their capillary networks.
3D Medical illustration showing different terminating ends of bronchioles.
The lungs as main part of respiratory tract
3D rendering of a high-resolution CT scan of the thorax. The anterior thoracic wall, the airways and the pulmonary vessels anterior to the root of the lung have been digitally removed in order to visualize the different levels of the pulmonary circulation.
Lungs during development, showing the early branching of the primitive bronchial buds
The effect of the respiratory muscles in expanding the rib cage.
Tissue death of the lung due to a pulmonary embolism
3D still image of constricted airways as in bronchial asthma.
Lung tissue affected by emphysema using H&E stain.
On inhalation, air travels to air sacs near the back of a bird. The air then passes through the lungs to air sacs near the front of the bird, from where the air is exhaled.
The cross-current respiratory gas exchanger in the lungs of birds. Air is forced from the air sacs unidirectionally (from left to right in the diagram) through the parabronchi. The pulmonary capillaries surround the parabronchi in the manner shown (blood flowing from below the parabronchus to above it in the diagram). Blood or air with a high oxygen content is shown in red; oxygen-poor air or blood is shown in various shades of purple-blue.
The axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) retains its larval form with gills into adulthood
Book lungs of spider (shown in pink)
thumb|Chest CT (axial lung window)
thumb|Chest CT (coronal lung window)

Elastin is the key protein of the extracellular matrix and is the main component of the elastic fibres.

Perlecan

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Protein that in humans is encoded by the HSPG2 gene.

Protein that in humans is encoded by the HSPG2 gene.

Perlecan is a large multidomain (five domains, labeled I-V) proteoglycan that binds to and cross-links many extracellular matrix (ECM) components and cell-surface molecules.