Extraocular muscles

extraocular muscleeye muscleseye muscleocular musclesmusclesoculomotor musclesrectus musclesactionsEOMextra-ocular muscle
The extraocular muscles are the six muscles that control movement of the eye and one muscle that controls eyelid elevation (levator palpebrae).wikipedia
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Annulus of Zinn

common tendinous ringanulus tendineusAnulus tendineus communis
Four of the extraocular muscles have their origin in the back of the orbit in a fibrous ring called the annulus of Zinn: the four rectus muscles.
It is the common origin of the four rectus muscles (extraocular muscles).

Ophthalmic artery

ophthalmicartery to the eyeLateral muscular branch
The extraocular muscles are supplied mainly by branches of the ophthalmic artery.
The OA continues medially the superior and inferior muscular branches arise either from the OA or a single trunk from the OA subsequently divides into superior and inferior branches to supply the extraocular muscles.

Strabismus

squintcross-eyedheterotropia
Certain diseases of the pulleys (heterotopy, instability, and hindrance of the pulleys) cause particular patterns of incomitant strabismus.
The extraocular muscles control the position of the eyes.

Anterior ciliary arteries

Anterior ciliary artery
Additional branches of the ophthalmic artery include the ciliary arteries, which branch into the anterior ciliary arteries.
The anterior ciliary arteries are seven small arteries in each eye-socket that supply the conjunctiva, sclera and the rectus muscles.

Lateral rectus muscle

lateral rectuslateralRectus lateralis
It is one of six extraocular muscles that control the movements of the eye.

Listing's law

Donders' lawListing's planetorsion
The extraocular muscle pulley system is fundamental to the movement of the eye muscles, in particular also to ensure conformity to Listing's law.
The eye muscles may also contribute to Listing's law by having position-dependent pulling directions during motion, i.e., this might be the mechanism that implements the 'half angle' rule described above.

Eye movement

eye movementsversionexcyclotorsion
The extraocular muscles are the six muscles that control movement of the eye and one muscle that controls eyelid elevation (levator palpebrae).
The eyes are the visual organs of the human body, and move using a system of six muscles.

Orbit (anatomy)

orbitorbitseye socket
The extraocular muscles develop along with Tenon's capsule (part of the ligaments) and the fatty tissue of the eye socket (orbit).
It is a major pathway for intracranial communication, containing cranial nerves III, IV, VI which control eye movement via the extraocular muscles, and the ophthalmic branches of cranial nerve V, or V1.

Superior rectus muscle

superior rectussuperiorrectus superior
It is one of the extraocular muscles.

Superior oblique muscle

superior obliquesuperiorObliquus superior
It is the only extraocular muscle innervated by the trochlear nerve (the fourth cranial nerve).

Inferior oblique muscle

inferior obliqueinferiorObliquus inferior
The inferior oblique is an extraocular muscle, and is attached to the maxillary bone (origin) and the posterior, inferior, lateral surface of the eye (insertion).

Muscle tone

tonemuscle tensionmuscle tonus
This "tonic" activity is brought on by discharges of the motor nerve to the muscle.
In ophthalmology, tonus may be a central consideration in eye surgery, as in the manipulation of extraocular muscles to repair strabismus.

Tenon's capsule

capsule of Tenonbulbar sheathCapsule of Ténon
The extraocular muscles develop along with Tenon's capsule (part of the ligaments) and the fatty tissue of the eye socket (orbit).
The disease is also known as orbital inflammatory pseudotumor, and sometimes may only affect the lacrimal gland or the extraocular muscles.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

ALSLou Gehrig's diseasemotor neurone disease
Individuals affected by the disorder may ultimately lose the ability to initiate and control all voluntary movement, although bladder and bowel function and the extraocular muscles (the muscles responsible for eye movement) are usually spared until the final stages of the disease.

Parks–Bielschowsky three-step test

Bielschowsky's head tilt testhead tilt testPark's three-step test
The Parks–Bielschowsky three-step test, also known as Park's three-step test or Bielschowsky head tilt test, is a method used to isolate the paretic extraocular muscle, particularly superior oblique muscle and trochlear nerve (IVth cranial nerve), in acquired vertical double vision.

Trochlear nerve

trochlearIVfourth
In fact, each of the six extraocular muscles exerts rotational forces in all three planes (elevation-depression, adduction-abduction, intorsion-extorsion) to varying degrees, depending on which way the eye is looking.

Oculomotor nerve

oculomotorIIIcranial nerve III
By observing the eye movement and eyelids, the examiner is able to obtain more information about the extraocular muscles, the levator palpebrae superioris muscle, and cranial nerves III, IV, and VI.

Muscle

musclesmuscularmusculature
The extraocular muscles are the six muscles that control movement of the eye and one muscle that controls eyelid elevation (levator palpebrae).

Human eye

eyeeyeseyeball
The actions of the six muscles responsible for eye movement depend on the position of the eye at the time of muscle contraction.

Fovea centralis

foveaarea centraliscentral
Since only a small part of the eye called the fovea provides sharp vision, the eye must move to follow a target.

Vestibulo–ocular reflex

vestibulo-ocular reflexoculocephalic reflexoculovestibular reflex
It is known, however, that the vestibulo-ocular reflex plays an important role in the involuntary movement of the eye.

Trochlea of superior oblique

trochleaTrochlear fovea
The superior oblique muscle originates at the back of the orbit (a little closer to the medial rectus, though medial to it), getting rounder as it courses forward to a rigid, cartilaginous pulley, called the trochlea, on the upper, nasal wall of the orbit.

Pulley

pulleyspulley wheelBlock and tackle
The movements of the extraocular muscles take place under the influence of a system of extraocular muscle pulleys, soft tissue pulleys in the orbit.

Lacrimal artery

lacrimal
This is done either directly or indirectly, as in the lateral rectus muscle, via the lacrimal artery, a main branch of the ophthalmic artery.

Ciliary arteries

posterior ciliary arteriesciliary artery
Additional branches of the ophthalmic artery include the ciliary arteries, which branch into the anterior ciliary arteries.