Eye contact

eye gazeeye-contactavoiding eye contactcommunicate visuallyeye gazingeye-gazingface avoidancegaze aversiongazes into the questioners' eyesinstinctive or subconscious level
Eye contact occurs when two animals look at each other's eyes at the same time.wikipedia
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Facial expression

facial expressionsexpressionexpressions
Eye contact and facial expressions provide important social and emotional information.
Also, eye contact is considered an important aspect of interpersonal communication.

Oculesics

The study of eye contact is sometimes known as oculesics.

Autism spectrum

autism spectrum disorderautisticautism spectrum disorders
For example, those with autistic disorders or social anxieties may find eye contact to be particularly unsettling.
ASD is a subset of the broader autism phenotype (BAP), which describes individuals who may not have ASD but do have autistic-like traits, such as avoiding eye contact.

Civil inattention

In the process of civil inattention, strangers in close proximity, such as a crowd, avoid eye contact in order to help maintain their privacy.
Through brief eye contact with an approaching stranger, we both acknowledge their presence and foreclose the possibility of more personal contact or of conversation.

Social anxiety disorder

social phobiaAnthropophobiasociophobia
For example, those with autistic disorders or social anxieties may find eye contact to be particularly unsettling.
Minor avoidance behaviors are exposed when a person avoids eye contact and crosses his/her arms to avoid recognizable shaking.

Strabismus

squintcross-eyedheterotropia
Strabismus, especially esophoria or exophoria, interferes with normal eye contact: a person whose eyes are not aligned usually makes full eye contact with one eye only, while the orientation of the other eye deviates slightly or more.
Notably, strabismus interferes with normal eye contact, often causing embarrassment, anger, and feelings of awkwardness, thereby affecting social communication in a fundamental way, with a possible negative effect on self esteem.

Flirting

flirtflirtatiousflirtation
Eye contact is also an important element in flirting, where it may serve to establish and gauge the other's interest in some situations.

Diergaarde Blijdorp

Rotterdam ZooBlijdorp ZooZoo
A 2007 incident at Rotterdam Zoo is believed to be connected to eye contact: Bokito the gorilla escaped from his exhibit and injured a woman who had visited him several times and apparently often held prolonged eye contact.
Before the attack, the woman was a regular visitor of the zoo (on average 4 times per week) and claimed to have a special bond with Bokito, regularly touching the glass between her and the gorilla, making eye contact with him and smiling at him.

Mental status examination

mental statuspsychiatric examinationmental status exam
For clinical evaluation purposes in the practice of psychiatry and clinical psychology, as part of a mental status exam, the clinician may describe the initiation, frequency, and quality of eye contact.
Abnormalities of behavior, also called abnormalities of activity, include observations of specific abnormal movements, as well as more general observations of the patient's level of activity and arousal, and observations of the patient's eye contact and gait.

Joint attention

gazejoint visual attentionshared attention
It is achieved when one individual alerts another to an object by means of eye-gazing, pointing or other verbal or non-verbal indications.

Staring

staring conteststaredstare
Contrary to this, Doherty-Sneddon suggests that a blank stare indicates a lack of understanding.
In a staring contest, a mutual staring can take the form of a battle of wills when an eye contact is reciprocated, it could be an aggressive-dominating game where the loser is the person who looks away first.

Bokito (gorilla)

Bokito
A 2007 incident at Rotterdam Zoo is believed to be connected to eye contact: Bokito the gorilla escaped from his exhibit and injured a woman who had visited him several times and apparently often held prolonged eye contact.
She had a habit of touching the glass that separated the public from the gorillas, while making eye contact with Bokito and smiling at him.

Human

humanshuman beinghuman beings
In human beings, eye contact is a form of nonverbal communication and is thought to have a large influence on social behavior.

Nonverbal communication

nonverbalnon-verbal communicationnon-verbal
In human beings, eye contact is a form of nonverbal communication and is thought to have a large influence on social behavior.

Social behavior

social behavioursociabilitysocial
In human beings, eye contact is a form of nonverbal communication and is thought to have a large influence on social behavior.

Western world

WesternWestthe West
Coined in the early to mid-1960s, the term came from the West to often define the act as a meaningful and important sign of confidence, respect, and social communication.

Religion

religiousreligionsreligious beliefs
The customs and significance of eye contact vary between societies, with religious and social differences often altering its meaning greatly.

Social

Social dramasociallysocio
Eye contact and facial expressions provide important social and emotional information.

Mood (psychology)

moodmoodsatmosphere
People, perhaps without consciously doing so, search other's eyes and faces for positive or negative mood signs.

Privacy

privatepersonal privacyprivacy rights
In the process of civil inattention, strangers in close proximity, such as a crowd, avoid eye contact in order to help maintain their privacy.

Attention

concentrationfocusinattention
A person's direction of gaze may indicate to others where their attention lies.

Esophoria

Strabismus, especially esophoria or exophoria, interferes with normal eye contact: a person whose eyes are not aligned usually makes full eye contact with one eye only, while the orientation of the other eye deviates slightly or more.

Exophoria

Strabismus, especially esophoria or exophoria, interferes with normal eye contact: a person whose eyes are not aligned usually makes full eye contact with one eye only, while the orientation of the other eye deviates slightly or more.

University of Stirling

Stirling UniversityStirlingUniversity of Sterling
In one study conducted by British psychologists from the University of Stirling among 20 British children at the age five, researchers concluded that among the children in the study, the children who avoid eye contact while considering their responses to questions are more likely to answer correctly than children who maintain eye contact.

East Asia

East AsianEastEastern Asia
In many cultures, such as in East Asia and Nigeria, it is respectful not to look the dominant person in the eye, but in Western culture this can be interpreted as being "shifty-eyed", and the person judged badly because "he wouldn't look me in the eye"; references such as "shifty-eyed" can refer to suspicions regarding an individual's unrevealed intentions or thoughts.