Eye examination

eye exameye testexaminationophthalmologicrefractionvision examinationvision testvision testsexamination of the eyeexamination of the retina
An eye examination is a series of tests performed by an ophthalmologist (medical doctor), optometrist, or orthoptist, optician, assessing vision and ability to focus on and discern objects, as well as other tests and examinations pertaining to the eyes.wikipedia
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Optometry

optometristoptometristsDoctor of Optometry
An eye examination is a series of tests performed by an ophthalmologist (medical doctor), optometrist, or orthoptist, optician, assessing vision and ability to focus on and discern objects, as well as other tests and examinations pertaining to the eyes.
Optometrists (also known as doctors of optometry in the United States and Canada, by higher degree in the United Kingdom and worldwide for those holding the O.D. degree) are health care professionals who provide primary eye care through refractions and comprehensive eye examinations to detect and treat various vision abnormalities and eye diseases.

Ophthalmology

ophthalmologistophthalmicoculist
An eye examination is a series of tests performed by an ophthalmologist (medical doctor), optometrist, or orthoptist, optician, assessing vision and ability to focus on and discern objects, as well as other tests and examinations pertaining to the eyes.
Following are examples of methods of diagnosis performed in a eye examination

Visual impairment

blindblindnessvisually impaired
Eye examinations may detect potentially treatable blinding eye diseases, ocular manifestations of systemic disease, or signs of tumours or other anomalies of the brain.
Diagnosis is by an eye exam.

Visual acuity

20/20 visionvision20/20
An eye examination is a series of tests performed by an ophthalmologist (medical doctor), optometrist, or orthoptist, optician, assessing vision and ability to focus on and discern objects, as well as other tests and examinations pertaining to the eyes. A full eye examination consists of an external examination, followed by specific tests for visual acuity, pupil function, extraocular muscle motility, visual fields, intraocular pressure and ophthalmoscopy through a dilated pupil.
Instead, an eye exam seeks to find the prescription that will provide the best corrected visual performance achievable.

Near-sightedness

myopiamyopicnearsightedness
Examples of refractive error are myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism.
Diagnosis is by eye examination.

Autorefractor

automated refractorauto-refractorauto-refractors
An objective refraction is a refraction obtained without receiving any feedback from the patient, using a retinoscope or auto-refractor.
An autorefractor or automated refractor is a computer-controlled machine used during an eye examination to provide an objective measurement of a person's refractive error and prescription for glasses or contact lenses.

Phoropter

competing versionsPhoroptor (phoropter)
Typically, the patient will sit behind a phoropter or wear a trial frame and look at an eye chart.
It is commonly used by eye care professionals during an eye examination, and contains different lenses used for refraction of the eye during sight testing, to measure an individual's refractive error and determine his or her eyeglass prescription.

Intraocular pressure

intra-ocular pressurepressure inside the eyepressure in the eye
A full eye examination consists of an external examination, followed by specific tests for visual acuity, pupil function, extraocular muscle motility, visual fields, intraocular pressure and ophthalmoscopy through a dilated pupil.
Intraocular pressure is measured with a tonometer as part of a comprehensive eye examination.

Refractive error

refractive errorsrefraction errorametropia
Refractive error is an optical abnormality in which the shape of the eye fails to bring light into sharp focus on the retina, resulting in blurred or distorted vision.
Diagnosis is by eye examination.

Far-sightedness

hyperopiahyperopichypermetropia
Examples of refractive error are myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism.
Diagnosis is based on an eye exam.

Human eye

eyeeyeseyeball
An eye examination is a series of tests performed by an ophthalmologist (medical doctor), optometrist, or orthoptist, optician, assessing vision and ability to focus on and discern objects, as well as other tests and examinations pertaining to the eyes.
At the conclusion of a complete eye examination, the eye doctor might provide the patient with an eyeglass prescription for corrective lenses.

Astigmatism

against the rule astigmatismastigmaticastigmatic myopic
Examples of refractive error are myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism.
A number of tests are used during eye examinations to determine the presence of astigmatism and to quantify its amount and axis.

Pupil

pupilspupillaryeye pupil
A full eye examination consists of an external examination, followed by specific tests for visual acuity, pupil function, extraocular muscle motility, visual fields, intraocular pressure and ophthalmoscopy through a dilated pupil.

Ophthalmoscopy

ophthalmoscopefundoscopyfundoscopic
A full eye examination consists of an external examination, followed by specific tests for visual acuity, pupil function, extraocular muscle motility, visual fields, intraocular pressure and ophthalmoscopy through a dilated pupil.
It is done as part of an eye examination and may be done as part of a routine physical examination.

Cycloplegia

cycloplegicblurring of visioncycloplegia medication
Sometimes, eye care professionals prefer to obtain a cycloplegic refraction, especially when trying to obtain an accurate refraction in young children who may skew refraction measurements by adjusting their eyes with accommodation.
All cycloplegics are also mydriatic (pupil dilating) agents and are used as such during eye examination to better visualize the retina.

Amblyopia

lazy eyeamblyopicamblyopia ex anopisa
Amblyopia can be difficult to detect, so vision testing is recommended for all children around the ages of four to five.

Strabismus

squintcross-eyedheterotropia
First, the doctor should visually assess the eyes for deviations that could result from strabismus, extraocular muscle dysfunction, or palsy of the cranial nerves innervating the extraocular muscles.
During an eye examination, a test such as cover testing or the Hirschberg test is used in the diagnosis and measurement of strabismus and its impact on vision.

Presbyopia

presbyopicnear pointFlexivue Microlens
Diagnosis is by an eye examination.

Optic disc

optic diskoptic nerve headblind spot
The appearance of the optic disc and retinal vasculature are also recorded during fundus examination.
A slit lamp biomicroscopic examination along with an appropriate aspheric focusing lens (+66D, +78D or +90D) is required for a detailed stereoscopic view of the optic disc and structures inside the eye.

Swinging-flashlight test

swinging flashlight testpenlight examination
A swinging-flashlight test may also be desirable if neurologic damage is suspected.
* Eye examination

Eyeglass prescription

prescriptionprescription glasseseyeglass prescriptions
If an examination indicates that corrective lenses are appropriate, the prescriber generally provides the patient with an eyewear prescription at the conclusion of the exam.

Ultrasound biomicroscopy

UBMUltrasound
Ultrasound biomicroscopy is a type of ultrasound eye exam that makes a more detailed image than regular ultrasound.

Positive relative accommodation

This measurement is typically obtained by an orthoptist, ophthalmologist or optometrist during an eye examination using a phoropter.

Negative relative accommodation

This measurement is typically obtained by an orthoptist, ophthalmologist or optometrist during an eye examination using a phoropter.