Eyelid

eyelidspalpebralpalpebraupper eyelidlower eyelidLidsdouble eyelideyes closepalpebral fissuresupper
"Palpebral" is not to be confused with "Palpable".wikipedia
314 Related Articles

Eyelash

eyelashesciliaryeyelashes,
The human eyelid features a row of eyelashes along the eyelid margin, which serve to heighten the protection of the eye from dust and foreign debris, as well as from perspiration.
An eyelash or simply lash is one of the hairs that grows at the edge of the eyelid.

Blinking

blinkBlinksreflex blink
Moreover, the blink reflex protects the eye from foreign bodies.
Blinking is a bodily function; it is a semi-autonomic rapid closing of the eyelid.

Orbicularis oculi muscle

orbicularis oculiorbicularis musclemuscle of Riolan
The eyelid is made up of several layers; from superficial to deep, these are: skin, subcutaneous tissue, orbicularis oculi, orbital septum and tarsal plates, and palpebral conjunctiva.
The orbicularis oculi is a muscle in the face that closes the eyelids.

Levator palpebrae superioris muscle

levator palpebrae superiorislevator palpebraelevator
The levator palpebrae superioris muscle retracts the eyelid, exposing the cornea to the outside, giving vision.
The levator palpebrae superioris (Latin for: elevating muscle of upper eyelid) is the muscle in the orbit that elevates the superior (upper) eyelid.

Conjunctiva

conjunctivalconjuctivabulbar conjunctiva
The eyelid is made up of several layers; from superficial to deep, these are: skin, subcutaneous tissue, orbicularis oculi, orbital septum and tarsal plates, and palpebral conjunctiva.
The conjunctiva is a tissue that lines the inside of the eyelids and covers the sclera (the white of the eye).

Tarsus (eyelids)

tarsiSuperior tarsustarsal plate
The eyelid is made up of several layers; from superficial to deep, these are: skin, subcutaneous tissue, orbicularis oculi, orbital septum and tarsal plates, and palpebral conjunctiva.
The tarsi (tarsal plates) are two comparatively thick, elongated plates of dense connective tissue, about 2.5 cm in length; one is found in each eyelid, and contributes to its form and support.

Meibomian gland

meibomian glandsmeibomian gland dysfunctiontarsal glands
The meibomian glands lie within the eyelid and secrete the lipid part of the tear film.
The Meibomian gland (often written with a small "m" and also called tarsal gland) is a holocrine type of exocrine gland, at the rim of the eyelid inside the tarsal plate, responsible for the supply of meibum, an oily substance that prevents evaporation of the eye's tear film.

Orbital septum

septum
The eyelid is made up of several layers; from superficial to deep, these are: skin, subcutaneous tissue, orbicularis oculi, orbital septum and tarsal plates, and palpebral conjunctiva.
It extends from the orbital rims to the eyelids.

Supraorbital nerve

supraorbitalsuperior orbital nervesupra-orbital
In humans, the sensory nerve supply to the upper eyelids is from the infratrochlear, supratrochlear, supraorbital and the lacrimal nerves from the ophthalmic branch (V1) of the trigeminal nerve (CN V). The skin of the lower eyelid is supplied by branches of the infratrochlear at the medial angle, the rest is supplied by branches of the infraorbital nerve of the maxillary branch (V2) of the trigeminal nerve.
It passes through the supraorbital foramen, and gives off, in this situation, palpebral filaments to the upper eyelid.

Stye

hordeolumstyesexternal hordeolum
Hordeolum (stye) is an infection of the sebaceous glands of Zeis usually caused by Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, similar to the more common condition Acne vulgaris. It is characterized by an acute onset of symptoms and it appears similar to a red bump placed underneath the eyelid. The main symptoms of styes include pain, redness of the eyelid and sometimes swollen eyelids. Styes usually disappear within a week without treatment. Otherwise, antibiotics may be prescribed and home remedies such as warm water compresses may be used to promote faster healing. Styes are normally harmless and do not cause long lasting damage.
A stye, also known as a hordeolum, is a bacterial infection of an oil gland in the eyelid.

Infraorbital nerve

infra-orbital nerveinfraorbital portion
In humans, the sensory nerve supply to the upper eyelids is from the infratrochlear, supratrochlear, supraorbital and the lacrimal nerves from the ophthalmic branch (V1) of the trigeminal nerve (CN V). The skin of the lower eyelid is supplied by branches of the infratrochlear at the medial angle, the rest is supplied by branches of the infraorbital nerve of the maxillary branch (V2) of the trigeminal nerve.
This nerve innervates (sensory) the lower eyelid, upper lip, and part of the nasal vestibule and exits the infraorbital foramen of the maxilla.

Chalazion

Chalazion cystmeibomian gland
Chalazion (plural: chalazia) is caused by the obstruction of the oil glands and can occur in both upper and lower eyelids. Chalazia may be mistaken for styes due to the similar symptoms. This condition is however less painful and it tends to be chronic. Chalazia heal within a few months if treatment is administered and otherwise they can resorb within two years. Chalazia that do not respond to topical medication are usually treated with surgery as a last resort.
Chalazion is a cyst in the eyelid due to a blocked oil gland.

Gland of Zeis

glands of ZeisZeiszeis gland
Hordeolum (stye) is an infection of the sebaceous glands of Zeis usually caused by Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, similar to the more common condition Acne vulgaris. It is characterized by an acute onset of symptoms and it appears similar to a red bump placed underneath the eyelid. The main symptoms of styes include pain, redness of the eyelid and sometimes swollen eyelids. Styes usually disappear within a week without treatment. Otherwise, antibiotics may be prescribed and home remedies such as warm water compresses may be used to promote faster healing. Styes are normally harmless and do not cause long lasting damage.
Glands of Zeis are unilobar sebaceous glands located on the margin of the eyelid.

Ophthalmic artery

ophthalmicartery to the eyeLateral muscular branch
The arches are formed by anastomoses of the lateral palpebral arteries and medial palpebral arteries, branching off from the lacrimal artery and ophthalmic artery, respectively.
The next branch of the OA is the lacrimal artery, one of the largest, arises just as the OA enters the orbit and runs along the superior edge of the lateral rectus muscle to supply the lacrimal gland, eyelids and conjunctiva.

Blepharitis

blephartiseyelidsgranulation of the eyelids
Blepharitis is the irritation of the lid margin, where eyelashes join the eyelid. This is a common condition that causes inflammation of the eyelids and which is quite difficult to manage because it tends to recur. This condition is mainly caused by staphylococcus infection and scalp dandruff. Blepharitis symptoms include burning sensation, the feeling that there is something in the eye, excessive tearing, blurred vision, redness of the eye, light sensitivity, red and swollen eyelids, dry eye and sometimes crusting of the eyelashes on awakening. Treatment normally consists in maintaining a good hygiene of the eye and holding warm compresses on the affected eyelid to remove the crusts. Gently scrubbing the eyelid with the warm compress is recommended as it eases the healing process. In more serious cases, antibiotics may be prescribed.
Blepharitis is one of the most common ocular conditions characterized by inflammation, scaling, reddening, and crusting of the eyelid.

Sebaceous gland

sebumsebaceous glandssebaceous
Hordeolum (stye) is an infection of the sebaceous glands of Zeis usually caused by Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, similar to the more common condition Acne vulgaris. It is characterized by an acute onset of symptoms and it appears similar to a red bump placed underneath the eyelid. The main symptoms of styes include pain, redness of the eyelid and sometimes swollen eyelids. Styes usually disappear within a week without treatment. Otherwise, antibiotics may be prescribed and home remedies such as warm water compresses may be used to promote faster healing. Styes are normally harmless and do not cause long lasting damage. The skin of the eyelid contains the greatest concentration of sebaceous glands found anywhere in the body.
Sebaceous glands are also found in hairless areas (glabrous skin) of the eyelids, nose, penis, labia minora, the inner mucosal membrane of the cheek, and nipples.

Lateral palpebral arteries

lateral palpebral branches
The arches are formed by anastomoses of the lateral palpebral arteries and medial palpebral arteries, branching off from the lacrimal artery and ophthalmic artery, respectively.
The lateral palpebral arteries are small arteries which supply the eyelid.

Entropion

in-turnedinward rolling of lower eyelidsinward-folded eyelid
Entropion usually results from aging, but sometimes can be due to a congenital defect, a spastic eyelid muscle, or a scar on the inside of the lid that could be from surgery, injury, or disease. It is an asymptomatic condition that can, rarely, lead to trichiasis, which requires surgery. It mostly affects the lower lid, and is characterized by the turning inward of the lid, toward the globe.
Entropion is a medical condition in which the eyelid (usually the lower lid) folds inward.

Lacrimal artery

lacrimal
The arches are formed by anastomoses of the lateral palpebral arteries and medial palpebral arteries, branching off from the lacrimal artery and ophthalmic artery, respectively.
Its terminal branches, escaping from the gland, are distributed to the eyelids and conjunctiva: of those supplying the eyelids, two are of considerable size and are named the lateral palpebral arteries; they run medially in the upper and lower lids respectively and anastomose with the medial palpebral arteries, forming an arterial circle in this situation.

Lacrimal nerve

lacrimallacrimal branches
In humans, the sensory nerve supply to the upper eyelids is from the infratrochlear, supratrochlear, supraorbital and the lacrimal nerves from the ophthalmic branch (V1) of the trigeminal nerve (CN V). The skin of the lower eyelid is supplied by branches of the infratrochlear at the medial angle, the rest is supplied by branches of the infraorbital nerve of the maxillary branch (V2) of the trigeminal nerve.
Then, it pierces the orbital septum, and ends in the skin of the upper eyelid, joining with filaments of the facial nerve.

Ectropion

Ectropion is another aging-related eyelid condition that may lead to chronic eye irritation and scarring. It may also be the result of allergies and its main symptoms are pain, excessive tearing and hardening of the eyelid conjunctiva.
Ectropion is a medical condition in which the lower eyelid turns outwards.

Blepharochalasis

Eyelid edema is a condition in which the eyelids are swollen and tissues contain excess fluid. It may affect eye function when it increases the intraocular pressure. Eyelid edema is caused by allergy, trichiasis or infections. The main symptoms are swollen red eyelids, pain, and itching. Chronic eyelid edema can lead to blepharochalasis.
Blepharochalasis is an inflammation of the eyelid that is characterized by exacerbations and remissions of eyelid edema, which results in a stretching and subsequent atrophy of the eyelid tissue, leading to the formation of redundant folds over the lid margins.

Blepharospasm

benign essential blepharospasmblepharospasmodic contractionseyelid
Blepharospasm (eyelid twitching) is an involuntary spasm of the eyelid muscle. The most common factors that make the muscle in the eyelid twitch are fatigue, stress, and caffeine. Eyelid twitching is not considered a harmful condition and therefore there is no treatment available. Patients are however advised to get more sleep and drink less caffeine.
Blepharospasm is any abnormal contraction or twitch of the eyelid.

Ptosis (eyelid)

ptosisblepharoptosisdrooping eyelid
Ptosis (drooping eyelid) is when the upper eyelid droops or sags due to weakness or paralysis of the levator muscle (responsible for raising the eyelid), or due to damage to nerves controlling the muscle. It can be a manifestation of the normal aging process, a congenital condition, or due to an injury or disease. Risk factors related to ptosis include diabetes, stroke, Horner syndrome, Bell's Palsy (compression/damage to Facial nerve), myasthenia gravis, brain tumor or other cancers that can affect nerve or muscle function.
Ptosis is a drooping or falling of the upper eyelid.

Blepharoplasty

eyelid surgeryblepharoplastieseye lift
The eyelid surgeries are called blepharoplasties and are performed either for medical reasons or to alter one's facial appearance.
Blepharoplasty (Greek: blepharon, "eyelid" + plassein "to form") is the plastic surgery operation for correcting defects, deformities, and disfigurations of the eyelids; and for aesthetically modifying the eye region of the face.