F. E. Smith, 1st Earl of Birkenhead

Lord BirkenheadF. E. SmithF.E. SmithEarl of BirkenheadFE SmithFrederick Edwin SmithSir F. E. SmithThe Earl of BirkenheadBirkenheadF. E. Smith, Lord Birkenhead
Frederick Edwin Smith, 1st Earl of Birkenhead, (12 July 1872 – 30 September 1930), known as '''F.wikipedia
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John Simon, 1st Viscount Simon

Sir John SimonJohn SimonViscount Simon
He was the dominant figure of a group of Wadham contemporaries including the athlete C. B. Fry, the future Liberal politician John Simon, and the Liberal economist Francis Hirst.
Simon's attendance at Wadham overlapped with those of F. E. Smith, the cricketer C. B. Fry and the journalist Francis Hirst.

Francis Hirst

Francis Wrigley HirstF. W. HirstFrancis W. Hirst
He was the dominant figure of a group of Wadham contemporaries including the athlete C. B. Fry, the future Liberal politician John Simon, and the Liberal economist Francis Hirst.
At Wadham, and at the Oxford Union, he was a friend and contemporary of the future politicians John Simon and FE Smith, and of the athlete C.B. Fry.

Lady Eleanor Smith

Eleanor SmithEleanor Smith (writer)Lady Eleanor Furneaux Smith
Smith married Margaret Eleanor Furneaux, daughter of classical scholar Henry Furneaux, in April 1901 and they had three children, Eleanor Smith, Frederick and Pamela Smith.
Born in Birkenhead, Smith was the eldest of three children born to politician F. E. Smith and Margaret Furneaux, daughter of the academic Henry Furneaux.

Vinerian Scholarship

Vinerian ScholarVinerian Law ScholarshipVinerian Law Scholar
In 1896 he won the Vinerian law scholarship and was elected a fellow of Merton College (1896–9), and also a lecturership at Oriel College.

Oxford City Police

A detachment of the Metropolitan Police Mounted Branch had been drafted in to reinforce the small Oxford City Police force against a large demonstration of University undergraduates.
A young law don, FE Smith, who had taken no part in the violence, saw police mishandling his college servant.

Hilaire Belloc

Belloc, HilaireBellocJoseph Hilaire Belloc
He often debated against Hilaire Belloc at the Oxford Union, where a bust of him now stands, and became President in Trinity (summer) term 1894.
He held his own in debates there with F. E. Smith and John Buchan, the latter a friend.

I Warn the Government

He attracted attention by a brilliant maiden speech, "I warn the Government..."
"I Warn the Government" is a speech by F. E. Smith, made on 12 March 1906.

List of presidents of the Oxford Union

President of the Oxford UnionPresidentpresidency
He often debated against Hilaire Belloc at the Oxford Union, where a bust of him now stands, and became President in Trinity (summer) term 1894.

Lady Pamela Smith

Pamela SmithLady HartwellLady Pamela
Smith married Margaret Eleanor Furneaux, daughter of classical scholar Henry Furneaux, in April 1901 and they had three children, Eleanor Smith, Frederick and Pamela Smith.
Born in London, the youngest child of F. E. Smith, 1st Earl of Birkenhead and Margaret Eleanor Furneaux, daughter of academic Henry Furneaux, she was called Lady Pamela.

Northern Circuit

North Eastern CircuitNorthern
Having eaten his dinners at Gray's Inn and passed his bar finals with distinction in the summer of 1899, Smith was called to the Bar and finally left Oxford, and quickly built up a brilliant and lucrative practice on the Northern Circuit, initially basing himself in Liverpool.
They follow on from a long line of Counsel who have become household names such as F. E. Smith (later to become Lord Birkenhead), Lord Shawcross QC (Leading Counsel at the Nuremberg Trials after World War II) and George Carman QC.

Lloyd George ministry

coalition governmentCoalitionLloyd George Coalition Government
When it was finally implemented in 1920, Smith was part of the Lloyd George Coalition that did so.

Attorney General for England and Wales

Attorney GeneralAttorney-GeneralAttorney-General for England and Wales
He soon after (in October 1915) succeeded his friend Sir Edward Carson as Attorney General, with the right to attend Cabinet.
The rule that no Attorney General may be a cabinet minister is a political convention rather than a law, and for a short time the Attorney General did sit in cabinet, starting with Lord Birkenhead in 1915 and ending with Douglas Hogg in 1928.

Church in Wales

Province of WalesAnglicanWales
A vociferous opponent of the Disestablishment of the Welsh part of the Church of England, he called the Welsh Disestablishment Bill "a bill which has shocked the conscience of every Christian community in Europe".
The opposition to disestablishment was led by the Conservative politician F. E. Smith, who characterised the disestablishment bill as "a Bill which has shocked the conscience of every Christian community in Europe."

Queen's Own Oxfordshire Hussars

Oxfordshire Yeomanry1/1st Queen's Own Oxfordshire Hussars2/1st Queen's Own Oxfordshire Hussars
Smith had joined the Territorial Army by commission into the Queen's Own Oxfordshire Hussars, in which Churchill was already an officer, in 1913, and was a captain in the regiment before the outbreak of the First World War.
The latter's great personal friend, F.E. Smith, later 1st Lord Birkenhead joined the same regiment in 1913 and was ultimately promoted to major in 1921.

Henry Furneaux

Furneaux, Henry
Smith married Margaret Eleanor Furneaux, daughter of classical scholar Henry Furneaux, in April 1901 and they had three children, Eleanor Smith, Frederick and Pamela Smith.
They had two sons and three daughters, including Margaret Eleanor Furneaux who married F. E. Smith, 1st Earl of Birkenhead in 1901.

Gray's Inn

Grey's InnGray’s InnGray's Inn Square
Having eaten his dinners at Gray's Inn and passed his bar finals with distinction in the summer of 1899, Smith was called to the Bar and finally left Oxford, and quickly built up a brilliant and lucrative practice on the Northern Circuit, initially basing himself in Liverpool.
Noted Benchers of Gray's Inn include Lord Birkenhead and Francis Bacon.

Wadham College, Oxford

Wadham CollegeWadhamWadham College, University of Oxford
He won a scholarship to Wadham College, Oxford, in 1891.
Two 20th century Lord Chancellors, F. E. Smith (Lord Birkenhead) and John Simon, were undergraduates together in the 1890s, along with the sportsman C. B. Fry; Sir Thomas Beecham was an undergraduate in 1897, though soon abandoning Oxford for his musical career.

Winston Churchill

Sir Winston ChurchillChurchillChurchill, Winston
He is perhaps best remembered today as Winston Churchill's greatest personal and political friend until Birkenhead's death aged 58 from pneumonia caused by cirrhosis of the liver.
One of his closest friends, even when he was a Liberal, was the Conservative MP F. E. Smith.

1921 Birthday Honours

Birthday Honours
Smith was created Viscount Birkenhead, of Birkenhead in the County of Chester, in the 1921 Birthday Honours, then Viscount Furneaux, of Charlton in the County of Northampton, and Earl of Birkenhead in 1922.
Sir Frederick Edwin, Baron Birkenhead

Law of Property Act 1925

19251925 property legislationLPA 1925
He played a key role in the passage of several key legal reforms, including the reform of English land law which was to come to fruition in the mid-1920s.
It forms part of an interrelated programme of legislation introduced by Lord Chancellor Lord Birkenhead between 1922 and 1925.

Birkenhead

Birkenhead, EnglandBirkenhead bus stationBirkenhead CB
Smith was born at 38 Pilgrim Street, Birkenhead in Cheshire, the eldest son and second of five surviving children of Frederick Smith (1845-1888) and Elizabeth (1842–1928), daughter of Edwin Taylor a rate collector, of Birkenhead.
F. E. Smith, 1st Earl of Birkenhead, a leading Conservative politician of the early 20th century, was born in the town, as were Liberal Democrat politician Malcolm Bruce, Labour politician Stephen Ladyman, the prominent occultist Alex Sanders, and Tony Hall, Baron Hall of Birkenhead, the Director-General of the BBC.

Oxford Union

Oxford Union SocietyUnionOxford
Between them they dominated both the rugby field and the Oxford Union Society.

Oxford Town Hall

Town Hall
Smith added to his Oxford reputation in May 1897, when he went to see the Prince of Wales open the new Oxford Town Hall.
A young law don, FE Smith, who had taken no part in the violence, saw police mishandling his college servant.

Welsh Church Act 1914

Welsh disestablishmentdisestablishmentDisestablishment of the Church in Wales
A vociferous opponent of the Disestablishment of the Welsh part of the Church of England, he called the Welsh Disestablishment Bill "a bill which has shocked the conscience of every Christian community in Europe".
English Catholic author G. K. Chesterton ridiculed the passion that was generated by the Bill in his poem Antichrist, or the Reunion of Christendom: An Ode, repeatedly addressing F. E. Smith, one of the chief opponents of the act.

Liverpool Walton (UK Parliament constituency)

Liverpool WaltonLiverpool, WaltonWalton
On the strength of this, he was selected three months later as candidate for the working-class constituency of Walton division.