FLAC

.flacFree Lossless Audio CodecFLAC uncompressed digital audio
FLAC (Free Lossless Audio Codec) is an audio coding format for lossless compression of digital audio, and is also the name of the free software project producing the FLAC tools, the reference software package that includes a codec implementation.wikipedia
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Audio coding format

audio coding standardaudio compression formatAudio coding
FLAC (Free Lossless Audio Codec) is an audio coding format for lossless compression of digital audio, and is also the name of the free software project producing the FLAC tools, the reference software package that includes a codec implementation.
Examples of audio coding formats include MP3, AAC, Vorbis, FLAC, and Opus.

Xiph.Org Foundation

Xiph.orgXiphThe Xiph.Org Foundation
On 29 January 2003, the Xiph.Org Foundation and the FLAC project announced the incorporation of FLAC under the Xiph.org banner.
These include Speex, an audio codec designed for speech, and FLAC, a lossless audio codec.

Lossless compression

losslesslossless data compressioncompression
FLAC (Free Lossless Audio Codec) is an audio coding format for lossless compression of digital audio, and is also the name of the free software project producing the FLAC tools, the reference software package that includes a codec implementation.
Free Lossless Audio Codec (FLAC)

Theora

libtheora.ogvOgg Theora
Xiph.org is behind other free compression formats such as Vorbis, Theora, Speex and Opus.
Theora video streams can be stored in any suitable container format, but they are most commonly found in the Ogg container with Vorbis or FLAC audio streams.

Digital audio

digital musicaudiodigital
FLAC (Free Lossless Audio Codec) is an audio coding format for lossless compression of digital audio, and is also the name of the free software project producing the FLAC tools, the reference software package that includes a codec implementation.
Audio data compression techniques, such as MP3, Advanced Audio Coding, Ogg Vorbis, or FLAC, are commonly employed to reduce the file size.

ReplayGain

, a command-line metadata editor for .flac files and for applying ReplayGain
FLAC and Ogg Vorbis use the Vorbis comment fields.

Winamp

Bento BrowserWinamp 5.58Winamp3
Input plugins for various music players (Winamp, XMMS, foobar2000, musikCube, and many more)
Playback formats: Winamp supports music playback using MP3, MIDI, MOD, MPEG-1 audio layers 1 and 2, AAC, M4A, FLAC, WAV, and WMA. Winamp was one of the first widely used music players on Windows to support playback of Ogg Vorbis by default. It supports gapless playback for MP3 and AAC and ReplayGain for volume leveling across tracks. CD support includes playing and importing music from audio CDs, optionally with CD-Text, and burning music to CDs. The standard version limits maximum burn speed and datarate; the "Pro" version removes these limitations. Winamp supports playback of Windows Media Video and Nullsoft Streaming Video. For MPEG Video, AVI, and other unsupported video types, Winamp uses Microsoft's DirectShow API for playback, allowing playback of most of the video formats supported by Windows Media Player. 5.1 Surround sound is supported where formats and decoders allow.

Ogg

.oggOGMogg123
With Xiph.org incorporation, the Ogg container format, suitable for streaming (also called Ogg FLAC)
Lossless audio compression formats include FLAC, and OggPCM.

Open format

openfreeopen file format
FLAC is an open format with royalty-free licensing and a reference implementation which is free software.
FLAC — lossless audio codec

MusikCube

Input plugins for various music players (Winamp, XMMS, foobar2000, musikCube, and many more)
Plugins currently exist to provide support for many popular audio codecs, including MP3, M4A, Ogg Vorbis, and FLAC.

Vorbis comment

vorbiscommentVorbis comments
For tagging, FLAC uses the same system as Vorbis comments.
A Vorbis comment is a metadata container used in the Vorbis, FLAC, Theora, Speex and Opus file formats.

Foobar2000

FPL
Input plugins for various music players (Winamp, XMMS, foobar2000, musikCube, and many more)
At its core, foobar2000 natively supports a range of audio formats, including MP1, MP2, MP3, MPC, AAC, WMA, Ogg Vorbis, FLAC / Ogg FLAC, ALAC, WavPack, WAV, AIFF, AU, SND, CD, Speex, and Opus.

XMMS

X Multimedia System
Input plugins for various music players (Winamp, XMMS, foobar2000, musikCube, and many more)
FLAC support is provided by a plugin in the FLAC library

Ripping

riprippedDigital Audio Extraction
A CUE file can optionally be created when ripping a CD. If a CD is read and ripped perfectly to FLAC files, the CUE file allows later burning of an audio CD that is identical in audio data to the original CD, including track order and pregap, but excluding CD-Text and other additional data such as lyrics and CD+G graphics.
The software then dumps them into a WAV or AIFF file, or feeds them to another codec to produce, for example, a FLAC or MP3 file.

Transcoding

transcodetranscodertranscodes
FLAC being lossless means it is highly suitable for transcoding e.g. to MP3, without the normally associated transcoding quality loss between one lossy format and another.
For users wanting to be able to re-encode audio into any format, and for digital audio editing, it is best to retain a master copy in a lossless format (such as FLAC, ALAC, TTA, WavPack, and others) that take around half the storage space needed when compared to original uncompressed PCM formats (such as WAV, and AIFF), as lossless formats usually have the added benefit of having meta data options, which are either completely missing or very limited in PCM formats.

Surround sound

Surround5.1 surround sound5.1
Channels can be grouped in some cases, for example stereo and 5.1 channel surround, to take advantage of interchannel correlations to increase compression.
! MP3/WAV/FLAC datastream

Golomb coding

GolombGolomb codesGolomb Rice Coding
CRC checksums are used for identifying corrupted frames when used in a streaming protocol. The file also includes a complete MD5 hash of the raw PCM audio in its STREAMINFO metadata header. FLAC allows for a Rice parameter between 0 and 16.
Several lossless audio codecs, such as Shorten, FLAC, Apple Lossless, and MPEG-4 ALS, use a Rice code after the linear prediction step (called "adaptive FIR filter" in Apple Lossless).

Windows 10

10WindowsCreators Update
FLAC support is included by default in Windows 10, Android, Blackberry 10 and Jolla devices.
Windows 10 adds FLAC and HEVC codecs and support for the Matroska media container, allowing these formats to be opened in Windows Media Player and other applications.

Pono (digital music service)

PonoPono MusicPono audio format
Among others the Pono music player and streaming service used the FLAC format.
In March 2014, Young announced that Pono would provide "the finest quality, highest-resolution digital music from both major labels and prominent independent labels" using the FLAC audio file format.

MP3

.mp3MP3 downloadmp3s
An exact restoration from a lossy copy (e.g., MP3) of the same data is impossible.
Lossless formats include FLAC (Free Lossless Audio Codec), Apple Lossless and many others.

MacOS High Sierra

macOS 10.1310.13macOS 10.13 "High Sierra
macOS High Sierra and iOS 11 add native FLAC playback support.
In addition, audio codecs FLAC and Opus are also supported, but not in iTunes.

Codec

codecsdecoderdecoders
FLAC (Free Lossless Audio Codec) is an audio coding format for lossless compression of digital audio, and is also the name of the free software project producing the FLAC tools, the reference software package that includes a codec implementation.

Algorithm

algorithmscomputer algorithmalgorithm design
Digital audio compressed by FLAC's algorithm can typically be reduced to between 50 and 70 percent of its original size and decompress to an identical copy of the original audio data.

Royalty-free

royalty free
FLAC is an open format with royalty-free licensing and a reference implementation which is free software.