FLOPS

FLOPS by the largest supercomputer over time

Measure of computer performance, useful in fields of scientific computations that require floating-point calculations.

- FLOPS
FLOPS by the largest supercomputer over time

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TOP500

The TOP500 project ranks and details the 500 most powerful non-distributed computer systems in the world.

The TOP500 project ranks and details the 500 most powerful non-distributed computer systems in the world.

Share of processor architecture families in TOP500 supercomputers by time trend
Share of operating systems families in TOP500 supercomputers by time trend

[[File:Supercomputers-history.svg|thumb|right|400px|Rapid growth of supercomputer performance, based on data from the top500.org website. The loga­rithmic y-axis shows performance in GFLOPS.

Cray J90 processor module with four scalar/vector processors

Vector processor

Central processing unit that implements an instruction set where its instructions are designed to operate efficiently and effectively on large one-dimensional arrays of data called vectors.

Central processing unit that implements an instruction set where its instructions are designed to operate efficiently and effectively on large one-dimensional arrays of data called vectors.

Cray J90 processor module with four scalar/vector processors
500px

Their version of the design originally called for a 1 GFLOPS machine with 256 ALUs, but, when it was finally delivered in 1972, it had only 64 ALUs and could reach only 100 to 150 MFLOPS.

Hierarchy of Blue Gene processing units

IBM Blue Gene

Hierarchy of Blue Gene processing units
A Blue Gene/P node card
A schematic overview of a Blue Gene/P supercomputer
The IBM Blue Gene/Q installed at Argonne National Laboratory, near Chicago, Illinois

Blue Gene is an IBM project aimed at designing supercomputers that can reach operating speeds in the petaFLOPS (PFLOPS) range, with low power consumption.

Riken

Large scientific research institute in Japan.

Large scientific research institute in Japan.

Riken in the Taishō period
A 1938 ad for Riken Vitamin A
Main Research Building in Wako
Advanced Institute for Computational Science in Kobe

The Riken Super Combined Cluster is one of the world's fastest supercomputers. In January 2006, Riken set up the Next-Generation Supercomputer R&D Center, with the purpose of designing and building the fastest supercomputer in the world, and in June 2006, it announced the completion of a one-petaFLOPS computer system designed specially for molecular dynamics simulation. and despite it being still not finished, it topped the LINPACK benchmark with the performance of 8.162 petaFLOPS, or 8.162 quadrillion calculations per second, with a computing efficiency ratio of 93.0%, making it the fastest supercomputer in the world at the time. The complete project entered service in November 2012.

An early electromechanical programmable computer, the Z3, included floating-point arithmetic (replica on display at Deutsches Museum in Munich).

Floating-point arithmetic

Arithmetic using formulaic representation of real numbers as an approximation to support a trade-off between range and precision.

Arithmetic using formulaic representation of real numbers as an approximation to support a trade-off between range and precision.

An early electromechanical programmable computer, the Z3, included floating-point arithmetic (replica on display at Deutsches Museum in Munich).
Single-precision floating point numbers on a number line: the green lines mark representable values.
Augmented version above showing both signs of representable values
Leonardo Torres y Quevedo, who proposed a form of floating point in 1914
William Kahan. A primary architect of the Intel 80x87 floating-point coprocessor and IEEE 754 floating-point standard.

The speed of floating-point operations, commonly measured in terms of FLOPS, is an important characteristic of a computer system, especially for applications that involve intensive mathematical calculations.

A human computer, with microscope and calculator, 1952

Grid computing

Use of widely distributed computer resources to reach a common goal.

Use of widely distributed computer resources to reach a common goal.

A human computer, with microscope and calculator, 1952

Also, as of March 2019, the Bitcoin Network had a measured computing power equivalent to over 80,000 exaFLOPS (Floating-point Operations Per Second).

Cray

American supercomputer manufacturer headquartered in Seattle, Washington.

American supercomputer manufacturer headquartered in Seattle, Washington.

Cray-2 supercomputer
Cray T3E processor board
Cray-designed HLRN-III Konrad (XC30/XC40) at Zuse Institute Berlin, 2014
Cray at the SC18 conference

In May 2004, Cray was announced to be one of the partners in the United States Department of Energy's fastest-computer-in-the-world project to build a 50 teraFlops machine for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

NEC

Japanese multinational information technology and electronics corporation, headquartered in Minato, Tokyo.

Japanese multinational information technology and electronics corporation, headquartered in Minato, Tokyo.

The NEC logo used from 1963 to 1992
A 1982 NEC APC microcomputer
A NEC Versa 6O1OH from ~1995-1996.
NEC Mobile Gear II MC/R330 handheld computer running Windows CE 2.0 (Japanese market, 1998)
Kaoru Yano, the previous chairman of NEC
An NTT DoCoMo FOMA N-02C mobile phone produced by NEC
The Earth Simulator
The European headquarters of Renesas Electronics Europe in Düsseldorf, Germany. (formerly NEC Electronics (Europe))
Japan Ground Self-Defense Force J/TPS-102 Self-propelled ground-based early warning 3D radar
NEC's Kobe system center

2002 Installation of the Earth Simulator, the world's fastest supercomputer from 2002 to 2004 reaching a speed of 35,600 gigaflops

BOINC Manager 7.6.22 running on macOS

Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing

Open-source middleware system for volunteer computing and grid computing.

Open-source middleware system for volunteer computing and grid computing.

BOINC Manager 7.6.22 running on macOS
BOINC Manager 7.6.22 running on macOS
The BOINC Manager working on the SETI@home project (v 7.6.22)
BOINC Manager icon

As a high-performance distributed computing platform, BOINC brings together about 34,236 active participants employing 136,341 active computers (hosts) worldwide, processing daily on average 20.164 PetaFLOPS (it would be the 21st largest processing capability in the world compared with an individual supercomputer Supercomputer TOP500 list).

Aerial view of ORNL's main campus in 2014

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

U.S. multiprogram science and technology national laboratory sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and administered, managed, and operated by UT–Battelle as a federally funded research and development center (FFRDC) under a contract with the DOE, located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

U.S. multiprogram science and technology national laboratory sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and administered, managed, and operated by UT–Battelle as a federally funded research and development center (FFRDC) under a contract with the DOE, located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

Aerial view of ORNL's main campus in 2014
Aerial view of ORNL's main campus in 2014
Workers in 1943 loading uranium slugs into the X-10 Graphite Reactor (now a National Historic Landmark)
The core of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment
Cayce Pentecost, Lyndon B. Johnson, Buford Ellington and Albert Gore Sr. operating mechanical hands at a hot cell at Oak Ridge, on October 19, 1958.
S.R. Sapirie, Senator Albert Gore Sr., Senator Lyndon Johnson and Dr. John Swartout looking at a model of a graphite reactor at Oak Ridge National Lab, on October 19, 1958.
The inside of ORMAK, an early tokamak, was gold plated for reflectivity
The Advanced Microscopy Laboratory at ORNL
Summit, developed at ORNL, was the world's fastest supercomputer from November 2018 to June 2020.

In 1995 ORNL bought an Intel Paragon based computer called the Intel Paragon XP/S 150 that performed at 154 gigaFLOPS and ranked third on the TOP500 list of supercomputers.