FODMAP

Low-FODMAP dietdiet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyolslow-FODMAP diets
The term FODMAP is an acronym, derived from "Fermentable Oligo-, Di-, Mono-saccharides And Polyols".wikipedia
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Irritable bowel syndrome

IBSbowelirritable bowel
FODMAPs are not the cause of these disorders, but FODMAPs restriction (a low-FODMAP diet) might help to improve short-term digestive symptoms in adults with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and other functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID).
Dietary measures include increasing soluble fiber intake, a gluten-free diet, or a short-term diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs).

Fructose malabsorption

fructose intolerancefructoseDietary fructose intolerance
Fructose malabsorption and lactose intolerance may produce IBS symptoms through the same mechanism but, unlike with other FODMAPs, poor absorption of fructose is found in only a minority and, in certain populations, notably those of European descent, lactose intolerance is found in only a minority.
Foods rich in fructans and other fermentable oligo-, di- and mono-saccharides and polyols (FODMAPs), including artichokes, asparagus, leeks, onions, and wheat-containing products, including breads, cakes, biscuits, breakfast cereals, pies, pastas, pizzas, and wheat noodles.

Inulin

F12 Inulin
Sources of fructans include wheat, rye, barley, onion, garlic, Jerusalem and globe artichoke, beetroot, dandelion leaves, the white part of leeks, the white part of spring onion, brussels sprouts, savoy cabbage and prebiotics such as fructooligosaccharides (FOS), oligofructose and inulin.
Conversely, it is also considered a FODMAP, a class of carbohydrates which are rapidly fermented in the colon producing gas and drawing water into the colon.

Flatulence

fartflatusflatulent
The resultant production of gas potentially results in bloating and flatulence.
This is the theory behind diets such as the low FODMAP diet (low fermentable oligosaccharide, disacharide, monosaccharide and polyols).

Inflammatory bowel disease

inflammatory bowel diseasesIBDindeterminate colitis
It can ameliorate and mask the digestive symptoms of serious diseases, such as celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer, avoiding their correct diagnosis and therapy.
Dietary interventions, including certain exclusion diets, low fiber diets, and low-FODMAP diets have some benefits.

Coeliac disease

celiac diseasecoeliacceliac
It can ameliorate and mask the digestive symptoms of serious diseases, such as celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer, avoiding their correct diagnosis and therapy.
In addition to gluten withdrawal, some people need to follow a low-FODMAPs diet or avoid consumption of commercial gluten-free products, which are usually rich in preservatives and additives (such as sulfites, glutamates, nitrates and benzoates) and might have a role in triggering functional gastrointestinal symptoms.

List of diets

crash dietDiets (list)invalid cookery
List of diets
Low-FODMAP diet: A diet that consists in the global restriction of all fermentable carbohydrates (FODMAPs).

Gluten

glutinouswheat glutenglutin
Since the consumption of gluten is suppressed or reduced with a low-FODMAP diet, the improvement of the digestive symptoms with this diet may not be related to the withdrawal of the FODMAPs, but of gluten, indicating the presence of an unrecognized celiac disease, avoiding its diagnosis and correct treatment, with the consequent risk of several serious health complications, including various types of cancer.
Besides gluten, additional components present in wheat, rye, barley, oats, and their derivatives, including other proteins called ATIs and short-chain carbohydrates known as FODMAPs, may cause NCGS symptoms.

Non-celiac gluten sensitivity

gluten sensitivitynon-coeliac gluten sensitivitygluten sensitive
FODMAPs are present in gluten-containing grains and have recently been identified as a possible cause of gastrointestinal symptoms in NCGS patients, but do not justify extra-digestive symptoms.

Pouchitis

A pilot study on the effect of reducing dietary FODMAP intake on bowel function in patients without a colon ran by Croagh C, Shepherd SJ, Berryman M, Muir JG, Gibson PR indicates there might be a relation between Pouchitis and FODMAP content of diets.

Gluten-free diet

gluten-freegluten freegluten free diet
Much recent research on NCGS has aimed at determining which agents trigger a response in people with NCGS: to which extent gluten, FODMAPs, ATIs (plant-derived proteins present in glutencontaining cereals and gluten) or wheat germ agglutinin are involved.

List of incurable diseases

There is no cure for IBS, but symptoms may improve with dietary measures (such as increasing soluble fiber intake, a gluten-free diet, or a short-term low-FODMAP diet), and certain medications, such as laxatives and antidiarrhoeals.

Gluten-related disorders

gluten intolerancegluten-sensitive enteropathygluten sensitivity
In some cases, patients can significantly improve with a low FODMAPs diet in addition to gluten withdrawal and/or a GFD with a low content of preservatives and additives.

Food intolerance

intolerancefood sensitivityFood Intolerances
FODMAPs are fermentable oligo-, di-, monosaccharides and polyols, which are poorly absorbed in the small intestine and subsequently fermented by the bacteria in the distal small and proximal large intestine.

Leaky gut syndrome

Leaky gutLGS
Advocates tout various treatments for "leaky gut syndrome", such as dietary supplements, probiotics, herbal remedies, gluten-free foods, and low-FODMAP, low-sugar, or antifungal diets, but there is little evidence that the treatments offered are of benefit.

Intestinal permeability

gut permeabilityIncreased intestinal permeabilitybeing absorbed
; herbal remedies; gluten-free foods; and low FODMAP, low sugar, or antifungal diets—have any beneficial effect for most of the conditions they are claimed to help.

Specific carbohydrate diet

a diet of bananas
A 2013 review on SCD and other exclusion diets concluded: "However, we lack large prospective controlled trials to provide the dietary recommendations patients’ desire. Taken together, studies of exclusive enteral nutrition, exclusion diets, and semi-vegetarian diets suggest that minimizing exposure of the intestinal lumen to selected food items may prolong the remission state of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Even less evidence exists for the efficacy of the SCD, FODMAP, or Paleo diet. " It also said that the diet risks imposition of an undue financial burden and potentially causes malnutrition.

Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth

bacterial overgrowthsmall bowel bacterial overgrowth syndromesmall intestine bacterial overgrowth
For example, if the symptoms are caused by bacterial overgrowth feeding on indigestible carbohydrate rich foods, following a FODMAP restriction diet may help.

Small intestine

small bowelsmall intestinessmall
FODMAPs are short chain carbohydrates that are poorly absorbed in the small intestine.

Carbohydrate

carbohydratessaccharidecomplex carbohydrates
FODMAPs are short chain carbohydrates that are poorly absorbed in the small intestine. They include short chain oligo-saccharide polymers of fructose (fructans) and galactooligosaccharides (GOS, stachyose, raffinose), disaccharides (lactose), monosaccharides (fructose), and sugar alcohols (polyols), such as sorbitol, mannitol, xylitol and maltitol.

Fructose

fructose metabolism, inborn errors L -fructose-Fructose
They include short chain oligo-saccharide polymers of fructose (fructans) and galactooligosaccharides (GOS, stachyose, raffinose), disaccharides (lactose), monosaccharides (fructose), and sugar alcohols (polyols), such as sorbitol, mannitol, xylitol and maltitol.

Fructan

fructansSources of fructans
Sources of fructans include wheat, rye, barley, onion, garlic, Jerusalem and globe artichoke, beetroot, dandelion leaves, the white part of leeks, the white part of spring onion, brussels sprouts, savoy cabbage and prebiotics such as fructooligosaccharides (FOS), oligofructose and inulin. They include short chain oligo-saccharide polymers of fructose (fructans) and galactooligosaccharides (GOS, stachyose, raffinose), disaccharides (lactose), monosaccharides (fructose), and sugar alcohols (polyols), such as sorbitol, mannitol, xylitol and maltitol.

Stachyose

They include short chain oligo-saccharide polymers of fructose (fructans) and galactooligosaccharides (GOS, stachyose, raffinose), disaccharides (lactose), monosaccharides (fructose), and sugar alcohols (polyols), such as sorbitol, mannitol, xylitol and maltitol.

Raffinose

D-raffinoseF11 Raffinose
They include short chain oligo-saccharide polymers of fructose (fructans) and galactooligosaccharides (GOS, stachyose, raffinose), disaccharides (lactose), monosaccharides (fructose), and sugar alcohols (polyols), such as sorbitol, mannitol, xylitol and maltitol.

Disaccharide

disaccharidesbiosidedi-
They include short chain oligo-saccharide polymers of fructose (fructans) and galactooligosaccharides (GOS, stachyose, raffinose), disaccharides (lactose), monosaccharides (fructose), and sugar alcohols (polyols), such as sorbitol, mannitol, xylitol and maltitol.