Facial nerve

facialcranial nerve VIIVIICN VIIFacial (VII)facial nerve injuriesseventh cranial nervecranial nerves VIIfacial (VII) nerveNervus intermediofacialis
The facial nerve is the seventh cranial nerve, or simply CN VII. It emerges from the pons of the brainstem, controls the muscles of facial expression, and functions in the conveyance of taste sensations from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue.wikipedia
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Cranial nerves

cranial nervecranialCN
The facial nerve is the seventh cranial nerve, or simply CN VII.
They are: the olfactory nerve (I), the optic nerve (II), oculomotor nerve (III), trochlear nerve (IV), trigeminal nerve (V), abducens nerve (VI), facial nerve (VII), vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII), glossopharyngeal nerve (IX), vagus nerve (X), accessory nerve (XI), and hypoglossal nerve (XII).

Abducens nerve

abducent nerveabducensVI
It arises from the brainstem from an area posterior to the cranial nerve VI (abducens nerve) and anterior to cranial nerve VIII (vestibulocochlear nerve).
The abducens nerve leaves the brainstem at the junction of the pons and the medulla, medial to the facial nerve.

Geniculate ganglion

geniculateGanglion geniculiangled
The cell bodies for the afferent nerves are found in the geniculate ganglion for taste sensation.
The geniculate ganglion (from Latin genu, for "knee" ) is collection of pseudounipolar sensory neurons of the facial nerve located in the facial canal of the head.

Chorda tympani

chorda tympani nervechorda tympani'' nerve
In addition, the facial nerve receives taste sensations from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue via the chorda tympani. The facial nerve also supplies parasympathetic fibers to the submandibular gland and sublingual glands via chorda tympani.
The chorda tympani is a branch of the facial nerve that originates from the taste buds in the front of the tongue, runs through the middle ear, and carries taste messages to the brain.

Tongue

Glossusforamen cecumblade
In addition, the facial nerve receives taste sensations from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue via the chorda tympani. It emerges from the pons of the brainstem, controls the muscles of facial expression, and functions in the conveyance of taste sensations from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue.
The pharyngeal part is supplied by the glossopharyngeal nerve and the oral part is supplied by the lingual nerve (a branch of the mandibular branch (V3) of the trigeminal nerve) for somatosensory perception and by the chorda tympani (a branch of the facial nerve) for taste perception.

Greater petrosal nerve

greater superficial petrosal nervegreater superficial petrosalgreater petrosal
The greater (superficial) petrosal nerve (also known as the large superficial petrosal nerve) is a nerve in the skull that branches from the facial nerve; it forms part of a chain of nerves that innervate the lacrimal gland.

Parotid gland

parotidparotid salivary glandparotid glands
Critically, the relationship of the tumor to the branches of the facial nerve (CN VII) must be defined because resection may damage the nerves, resulting in paralysis of the muscles of facial expression.

Taste

sourbittergustatory
In addition, the facial nerve receives taste sensations from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue via the chorda tympani. It emerges from the pons of the brainstem, controls the muscles of facial expression, and functions in the conveyance of taste sensations from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue.
The facial nerve (VII) carries taste sensations from the anterior two thirds of the tongue, the glossopharyngeal nerve (IX) carries taste sensations from the posterior one third of the tongue while a branch of the vagus nerve (X) carries some taste sensations from the back of the oral cavity.

Stylomastoid foramen

stylo-mastoid foramen
The nerves typically travels from the pons through the facial canal in the temporal bone and exits the skull at the stylomastoid foramen.
It is the termination of the facial canal, and transmits the facial nerve and stylomastoid artery.

Posterior auricular nerve

posterior auricular branch of the facialauricular branch of the posterior auricular nerveOccipital branches of posterior auricular nerve
The posterior auricular nerve arises from the facial nerve close to the stylomastoid foramen and runs upward in front of the mastoid process; here it is joined by a filament from the auricular branch of the vagus and communicates with the posterior branch of the great auricular as well as with the lesser occipital.

Brainstem

brain stembrain-stemback of the skull
It emerges from the pons of the brainstem, controls the muscles of facial expression, and functions in the conveyance of taste sensations from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue.
From this junction, CN VI (abducens nerve), CN VII (facial nerve) and CN VIII (vestibulocochlear nerve) emerge.

Pons

pontinePons Varoliiannular protuberance
It emerges from the pons of the brainstem, controls the muscles of facial expression, and functions in the conveyance of taste sensations from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. The nerves typically travels from the pons through the facial canal in the temporal bone and exits the skull at the stylomastoid foramen.
Basal plate neuroblasts give rise to the abducens nucleus, which forms the general somatic efferent fibers (GSE); the facial and motor trigeminal nuclei, which form the special visceral efferent (SVE) column, and the superior salivatory nucleus, which forms the general visceral efferent fibers (GVE) of the facial nerve.

Buccal branches of the facial nerve

Buccal branch of the facial nerveBuccal branchbuccal branches
The buccal branches of the facial nerve (infraorbital branches), are of larger size than the rest of the branches, pass horizontally forward to be distributed below the orbit and around the mouth.

Facial motor nucleus

facial nucleusfacial nerve nucleusfacial
The cell bodies for muscular efferent nerves are found in the facial motor nucleus whereas the cell bodies for the parasympathetic efferent nerves are found in the superior salivatory nucleus.
The facial motor nucleus is a collection of neurons in the brainstem that belong to the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII).

Maxillary sinus

maxillarymaxillary sinus neoplasmsmaxillary sinuses
The mucous membranes receive their postganglionic parasympathetic nerve innervation for mucous secretion originating from the greater petrosal nerve (a branch of the facial nerve).

Salivatory nuclei

inferior salivatory nucleussuperior salivatory nucleussuperior salivary nucleus
The cell bodies for muscular efferent nerves are found in the facial motor nucleus whereas the cell bodies for the parasympathetic efferent nerves are found in the superior salivatory nucleus.
The superior salivatory nucleus innervates the submandibular gland and the sublingual gland and is part of the facial nerve

Sphenoid sinus

sphenoidal sinussphenoidal sinusessphenoidal
The mucous membrane receives sensory innervation by the posterior ethmoidal nerves (branch of the ophthalmic nerve), and postganglionic parasympathetic fibers of the facial nerve that synapsed at the pterygopalatine ganglion which controls secretion of mucus.

Vestibulocochlear nerve

cranial nerve VIIIvestibulocochleareighth cranial nerve
It arises from the brainstem from an area posterior to the cranial nerve VI (abducens nerve) and anterior to cranial nerve VIII (vestibulocochlear nerve).

Sublingual gland

sublingualsublingual salivary glandRivinus ducts
The facial nerve also supplies parasympathetic fibers to the submandibular gland and sublingual glands via chorda tympani.
The chorda tympani nerve (from the facial nerve via the submandibular ganglion) is secretomotor and provides parasympathetic supply to the sublingual glands.

Intermediate nerve

nervus intermedius
The facial and intermediate nerves can be collectively referred to as the nervus intermediofacialis.
The intermediate nerve, nervus intermedius, nerve of Wrisberg or Glossopalatine nerve, is the part of the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII) located between the motor component of the facial nerve and the vestibulocochlear nerve (cranial nerve VIII).

Solitary nucleus

nucleus of the solitary tractnucleus tractus solitariinucleus solitarius
Taste sensation is sent to the gustatory portion (superior part) of the solitary nucleus.
Through the center of the SN runs the solitary tract, a white bundle of nerve fibers, including fibers from the facial, glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves, that innervate the SN.

Nasal cavity

nasal cavitiesnasal passagenasal
Sympathetic innervation to the blood vessels of the mucosa causes them to constrict, while the control of secretion by the mucous glands is carried on postganglionic parasympathetic nerve fibers originating from the facial nerve.