Fact

factsscientific factaccuratefactualfactualityhistorical factLegal definition of factobserved factsscientific factssynthetic propositions
A fact is a thing that is known to be consistent with objective reality and can be proven to be true with evidence.wikipedia
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Opinion

opinionsscientific opinionViews
All of these statements have the epistemic quality of being "ontologically superior" to opinion or interpretation — they are either categorically necessary or supported by adequate historical documentation.
Distinguishing fact from opinion is that facts are verifiable, i.e. can be agreed to by the consensus of experts.

Truth

trueTruth theorytheory of truth
Fact is sometimes used synonymously with truth, as distinct from opinions, falsehoods, or matters of taste.
Truth is most often used to mean being in accord with fact or reality, or fidelity to an original or standard.

Science

scientificsciencesscientific knowledge
Scientific facts are verified by repeatable careful observation or measurement by experiments or other means.
For example, heliocentric theory, the theory of evolution, relativity theory, and germ theory still bear the name "theory" even though, in practice, they are considered factual.

Slingshot argument

slingshots
The Slingshot argument claims to show that all true statements stand for the same thing - the truth value true.
These arguments are sometimes modified to support the alternative, and evidently stronger, conclusion that there is only one fact, or one true proposition, state of affairs, truth condition, truthmaker, and so on.

Theory

theoreticaltheoriestheorist
In the most basic sense, a scientific fact is an objective and verifiable observation, in contrast with a hypothesis or theory, which is intended to explain or interpret facts.
A formal theory is syntactic in nature and is only meaningful when given a semantic component by applying it to some content (e.g., facts and relationships of the actual historical world as it is unfolding).

Object (philosophy)

objectobjectsthing
Any non-trivial true statement about reality is necessarily an abstraction composed of a complex of objects and properties or relations.
Bertrand Russell updated the classical terminology with one more term, the fact; "Everything that there is in the world I call a fact."

Philosophy of history

philosopher of historyHistory is written by the victorslinear
A common rhetorical cliché states, "History is written by the winners."
By the eighteenth century historians had turned toward a more positivist approach—focusing on fact as much as possible, but still with an eye on telling histories that could instruct and improve.

Scientific theory

theoryscientific theoriestheories
Facts are central to building scientific theories.
Unlike hypotheses, theories and laws may be simply referred to as scientific fact.

De facto

de facto relationshipde-factode facto'' segregation
In law, government and official unit, the term de facto (de facto, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even though they are not officially recognized by laws.

Factoid

factoidsmyths as facts
Mailer described factoids as "facts which have no existence before appearing in a magazine or newspaper", and created the word by combining the word fact and the ending -oid to mean "similar but not the same".

Reality

real worldrealreality-based
Any non-trivial true statement about reality is necessarily an abstraction composed of a complex of objects and properties or relations. A fact is a thing that is known to be consistent with objective reality and can be proven to be true with evidence.

Evidence

evidentiarydisproveevident
A fact is a thing that is known to be consistent with objective reality and can be proven to be true with evidence.

Linguistics

linguistlinguisticlinguists
For example, "this sentence contains words" is a linguistic fact, and "the sun is a star" is a cosmological fact.

Cosmology

cosmologistcosmologicalcosmologies
For example, "this sentence contains words" is a linguistic fact, and "the sun is a star" is a cosmological fact.

Abraham Lincoln

LincolnPresident LincolnPresident Abraham Lincoln
Further, "Abraham Lincoln was the 16th President of the United States" and "Abraham Lincoln was assassinated" are also both facts, of the historical type.

United States

AmericanU.S.USA
Further, "Abraham Lincoln was the 16th President of the United States" and "Abraham Lincoln was assassinated" are also both facts, of the historical type.

History

historical recordshistoricalhistoric
Further, "Abraham Lincoln was the 16th President of the United States" and "Abraham Lincoln was assassinated" are also both facts, of the historical type.

Common knowledge

social knowledgecommon wisdompublicly declared
Conversely, while it may be both consistent and true that "most cats are cute", it is not a fact (although in cases of opinion there is an argument for the acceptance of popular opinion as a statement of common wisdom, particularly if ascertained by scientific polling).

Opinion poll

opinion pollingpollapproval rating
Conversely, while it may be both consistent and true that "most cats are cute", it is not a fact (although in cases of opinion there is an argument for the acceptance of popular opinion as a statement of common wisdom, particularly if ascertained by scientific polling).

Belief

beliefsreligious beliefbelief system
Generally speaking, facts transcend belief and serve as concrete descriptions of a state of affairs on which beliefs can later be assigned.

Abstract and concrete

abstract objectabstractconcrete
Generally speaking, facts transcend belief and serve as concrete descriptions of a state of affairs on which beliefs can later be assigned.

State of affairs (philosophy)

state of affairsstates of affairsFactualism
Generally speaking, facts transcend belief and serve as concrete descriptions of a state of affairs on which beliefs can later be assigned.

Experience

experiencesexperiencedexperiential
The usual test for a statement of fact is verifiability — that is whether it can be demonstrated to correspond to experience.

Experiment

experimentalexperimentationexperiments
Scientific facts are verified by repeatable careful observation or measurement by experiments or other means.