Factory system

early industrial revolution factoriesfactoriesfactory labormachinery factoriessystem
The factory system is a method of manufacturing using machinery and division of labour.wikipedia
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Industrial Revolution

industrialindustrialismindustrial era
The factory system was first adopted in Britain at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in the late 18th century and later spread around the world.
This transition included going from hand production methods to machines, new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes, the increasing use of steam power and water power, the development of machine tools and the rise of the mechanized factory system.

Manufacturing

manufacturermanufacturemanufacturers
The factory system is a method of manufacturing using machinery and division of labour.
The factory system was first adopted in Britain at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in the late 18th century and later spread around the world.

Putting-out system

cottage industrycottage industriesdomestic system
It replaced the putting-out system. Much manufacturing in the 18th century was carried out in homes under the domestic or putting-out system, especially the weaving of cloth and spinning of thread and yarn, often with just a single loom or spinning wheel.
It was replaced by inside contracting and the factory system.

Factory

factoriesmanufacturing plantplant
Other characteristics of the system mostly derive from the use of machinery or economies of scale, the centralization of factories, and standardization of interchangeable parts.
The earliest factories (using the factory system) developed in the cotton and wool textiles industry.

Piece work

pieceworkpiece ratepiece-rate
Workers were paid either daily wages or for piece work, either in the form of money or some combination of money, housing, meals and goods from a company store (the truck system).
In the British factory system, workers mass-produced parts from a fixed design as part of a division of labor, but did not have the advantage of machine tools or metalworking jigs.

Derwent Valley Mills

Derwent ValleyDerwent Valley World Heritage SiteDerwent Valley Mills World Heritage Site
Richard Arkwright is the person credited with being the brains behind the growth of factories and the Derwent Valley Mills.
The modern factory, or 'mill', system was born here in the 18th century to accommodate the new technology for spinning cotton developed by Richard Arkwright.

American system of manufacturing

American SystemArmory practiceAmerican system of manufactures
This method of working did not catch on in general manufacturing in Britain for many decades, and when it did it was imported from America, becoming known as the American system of manufacturing, even though it originated in England.
In the 1850s, the "American system" was contrasted to the British factory system which had evolved over the previous century.

Weaving

weaverweaverswoven
Much manufacturing in the 18th century was carried out in homes under the domestic or putting-out system, especially the weaving of cloth and spinning of thread and yarn, often with just a single loom or spinning wheel.
The putting-out system had been replaced by a factory system.

Productivity improving technologies

Productivity improving technologies (historical)productivityachievements in technological consumption of labour and energy
Before the factory system much production took place in the household, such as spinning and weaving, and was for household consumption.

Division of labour

division of laborspecializationspecialised
The factory system is a method of manufacturing using machinery and division of labour.

United Kingdom

BritishUKBritain
The factory system was first adopted in Britain at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in the late 18th century and later spread around the world.

Economies of scale

economy of scalescaleeconomics of scale
Other characteristics of the system mostly derive from the use of machinery or economies of scale, the centralization of factories, and standardization of interchangeable parts.

Centralisation

centralizedcentralizationcentralised
Other characteristics of the system mostly derive from the use of machinery or economies of scale, the centralization of factories, and standardization of interchangeable parts.

Standardization

standardstandardizedstandards
Other characteristics of the system mostly derive from the use of machinery or economies of scale, the centralization of factories, and standardization of interchangeable parts.

Interchangeable parts

interchangeableinterchangeabilityinterchangeability of parts
Other characteristics of the system mostly derive from the use of machinery or economies of scale, the centralization of factories, and standardization of interchangeable parts.

Line shaft

lineshaftline shaftingline-shaft
(Multi-story buildings were common because they facilitated transmission of power through line shafts.) In large factories, such as Baldwin locomotive works, different processes were performed in different buildings.

Baldwin Locomotive Works

BaldwinBaldwin-Lima-HamiltonBaldwin Locomotive
(Multi-story buildings were common because they facilitated transmission of power through line shafts.) In large factories, such as Baldwin locomotive works, different processes were performed in different buildings.

Wage

wageswage ratelabor costs
Workers were paid either daily wages or for piece work, either in the form of money or some combination of money, housing, meals and goods from a company store (the truck system).

Truck wages

truck systemcompany storescompany store
Workers were paid either daily wages or for piece work, either in the form of money or some combination of money, housing, meals and goods from a company store (the truck system).

Steam engine

steam powertriple expansion enginetriple expansion
He adapted this method to bore piston cylinders in the steam engines of James Watt.

John Lombe

One of the earliest factories was John Lombe's water-powered silk mill at Derby, operational by 1721.

Derby Silk Mill

Derby Industrial Museumwater-powered silk millSilk Mill Museum
One of the earliest factories was John Lombe's water-powered silk mill at Derby, operational by 1721.

Derby

Derby, EnglandCity of DerbyDerby, Derbyshire
One of the earliest factories was John Lombe's water-powered silk mill at Derby, operational by 1721.

Brass mill

By 1746, an integrated brass mill was working at Warmley near Bristol.