Failure to thrive

Failure to thrive (FTT), also known as weight faltering or faltering growth, indicates insufficient weight gain or absence of appropriate physical growth in children.

- Failure to thrive

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Cystic fibrosis

Genetic disorder that affects mostly the lungs, but also the pancreas, liver, kidneys, and intestine.

Genetic disorder that affects mostly the lungs, but also the pancreas, liver, kidneys, and intestine.

Health problems associated with cystic fibrosis
Cystic fibrosis has an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance
The CFTR protein is a channel protein that controls the flow of H2O and Cl− ions in and out of cells inside the lungs. When the CFTR protein is working correctly, ions freely flow in and out of the cells. However, when the CFTR protein is malfunctioning, these ions cannot flow out of the cell due to a blocked channel. This causes cystic fibrosis, characterized by the buildup of thick mucus in the lungs.
The location of the CFTR gene on chromosome 7
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection can be used to provide fertility for men with cystic fibrosis
Dorothy Hansine Andersen first described cystic fibrosis in 1938.

Other signs and symptoms may include sinus infections, poor growth, fatty stool, clubbing of the fingers and toes, and infertility in most males.

The three most common sites of intestinal involvement in Crohn's disease (left) compared to the areas affected by colitis ulcerosa (right).

Crohn's disease

Type of inflammatory bowel disease that may affect any segment of the gastrointestinal tract.

Type of inflammatory bowel disease that may affect any segment of the gastrointestinal tract.

The three most common sites of intestinal involvement in Crohn's disease (left) compared to the areas affected by colitis ulcerosa (right).
An aphthous ulcer on the mucous membrane of the mouth in Crohn's disease.
A single lesion of erythema nodosum
Endoscopic image of colon cancer identified in the sigmoid colon on screening colonoscopy for Crohn's disease
NOD2 protein model with schematic diagram. Two N-terminal CARD domains (red) connected via helical linker (blue) with central NBD domain (green). At C-terminus LRR domain (cyan) is located. Additionally, some mutations which are associated with certain disease patterns in Crohn's disease are marked in red wire representation.
Distribution of gastrointestinal Crohn's disease.
Endoscopic image of Crohn's colitis showing deep ulceration
CT scan showing Crohn's disease in the fundus of the stomach
Endoscopic biopsy showing granulomatous inflammation of the colon in a case of Crohn's disease.
Section of colectomy showing transmural inflammation
Resected ileum from a person with Crohn's disease

Among children, growth failure is common.

Biopsy of small bowel showing coeliac disease manifested by blunting of villi, crypt hypertrophy, and lymphocyte infiltration of crypts

Coeliac disease

Long-term autoimmune disorder, primarily affecting the small intestine, where individuals develop intolerance to gluten, present in foods such as wheat, rye and barley.

Long-term autoimmune disorder, primarily affecting the small intestine, where individuals develop intolerance to gluten, present in foods such as wheat, rye and barley.

Biopsy of small bowel showing coeliac disease manifested by blunting of villi, crypt hypertrophy, and lymphocyte infiltration of crypts
DQ α5-β2 -binding cleft with a deamidated gliadin peptide (yellow), modified from
HLA region of chromosome 6
Illustration of deamidated α-2 gliadin's 33mer, amino acids 56–88, showing the overlapping of three varieties of T-cell epitope
The active form of tissue transglutaminase (green) bound to a gluten peptide mimic (blue).
Immunofluorescence staining pattern of endomysial antibodies on a monkey oesophagus tissue sample.
Endoscopic still of duodenum of a person with coeliac disease showing scalloping of folds and "cracked-mud" appearance to mucosa
Schematic of the Marsh classification of upper jejunal pathology in coeliac disease.

Classic symptoms include gastrointestinal problems such as chronic diarrhoea, abdominal distention, malabsorption, loss of appetite, and among children failure to grow normally.

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Cockayne syndrome

Rare and fatal autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by growth failure, impaired development of the nervous system, abnormal sensitivity to sunlight (photosensitivity), eye disorders and premature aging.

Rare and fatal autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by growth failure, impaired development of the nervous system, abnormal sensitivity to sunlight (photosensitivity), eye disorders and premature aging.

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Failure to thrive and neurological disorders are criteria for diagnosis, while photosensitivity, hearing loss, eye abnormalities, and cavities are other very common features.

Harlequin-type ichthyosis

Harlequin-type ichthyosis

Genetic disorder that results in thickened skin over nearly the entire body at birth.

Genetic disorder that results in thickened skin over nearly the entire body at birth.

Harlequin-type ichthyosis
Two genetic mechanisms that can result in harlequin-type ichthyosis
An infant with Harlequin ichthyosis.
An infant with Harlequin ichthyosis.
Harlequin ichthyosis in a female infant
Harlequin ichthyosis in a male infant
An infant with Harlequin ichthyosis covered in sterile gauze.
Harlequin ichthyosis in a 3-year-old girl, the keratin scales having almost completely fallen off

Patients can also have generalized poor hair growth, scarring alopecia, contractures of digits, arthralgias, failure to thrive, hypothyroidism, and short stature.

Electron microscope image of the reassorted H1N1 influenza virus photographed at the CDC Influenza Laboratory. The viruses are 80–120 nanometres in diameter.

Swine influenza

Infection caused by any of several types of swine influenza viruses.

Infection caused by any of several types of swine influenza viruses.

Electron microscope image of the reassorted H1N1 influenza virus photographed at the CDC Influenza Laboratory. The viruses are 80–120 nanometres in diameter.
Main symptoms of swine flu in humans
Structure of H1N1 Virion.
Main symptoms of swine flu in swine
Thermal scanning of passengers arriving at Singapore Changi airport
Thermal imaging camera and screen, photographed in an airport terminal in Greece – thermal imaging can detect elevated body temperature, one of the signs of the virus H1N1 (swine influenza).
U.S. President Gerald Ford receives a swine flu vaccination

Although mortality is usually low (around 1–4%), the virus can produce weight loss and poor growth, causing economic loss to farmers.

Life cycle of Trichuris trichiura

Trichuriasis

Infection by the parasitic worm Trichuris trichiura .

Infection by the parasitic worm Trichuris trichiura .

Life cycle of Trichuris trichiura
Trichuris trichiura egg

Physical growth delay, weight loss, nutritional deficiencies, and anemia (due to long-standing blood loss) are also characteristic of infection, and these symptoms are more prevalent and severe in children.

Micrograph showing enterocytes with a clear cytoplasm (due to lipid accumulation) characteristic of abetalipoproteinemia. Duodenal biopsy. H&E stain.

Abetalipoproteinemia

Disorder that interferes with the normal absorption of fat and fat-soluble vitamins from food.

Disorder that interferes with the normal absorption of fat and fat-soluble vitamins from food.

Micrograph showing enterocytes with a clear cytoplasm (due to lipid accumulation) characteristic of abetalipoproteinemia. Duodenal biopsy. H&E stain.
Acanthocytosis in a patient with abetalipoproteinemia.
Abetalipoproteinemia has an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance.

Failure to thrive (i.e. failure to grow in infancy)

This condition is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner

Farber disease

Extremely rare, progressive, autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of the acid ceramidase enzyme.

Extremely rare, progressive, autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of the acid ceramidase enzyme.

This condition is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner

Failure to thrive

Automated arm blood pressure meter showing arterial hypertension (shown by a systolic blood pressure 158 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure 99 mmHg and heart rate of 80 beats per minute)

Hypertension

Long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.

Long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.

Automated arm blood pressure meter showing arterial hypertension (shown by a systolic blood pressure 158 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure 99 mmHg and heart rate of 80 beats per minute)
Determinants of mean arterial pressure
Illustration depicting the effects of high blood pressure
Rates of hypertension in adult men in 2014.
Diagram illustrating the main complications of persistent high blood pressure
Image of veins from Harvey's Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus
Graph showing, prevalence of awareness, treatment and control of hypertension compared between the four studies of NHANES

Failure to thrive, seizures, irritability, lack of energy, and difficulty in breathing can be associated with hypertension in newborns and young infants.