Fairy tale

fairy talesfairy-talefairytalefairytalesfolk talefairy storiesfolk talesfairy storyfairy-talesfolktale
A fairy tale, wonder tale, magic tale, or Märchen is a folklore genre that takes the form of a short story.wikipedia
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Once upon a time

A long time ago...
However, unlike legends and epics, fairy tales usually do not contain more than superficial references to religion and to actual places, people, and events; they take place "once upon a time" rather than in actual times.
"Once upon a time" is a stock phrase used to introduce a narrative of past events, typically in fairy tales and folk tales.

Giant

giantsgiantessNeringa
Such stories typically feature entities such as dwarfs, dragons, elves, fairies, giants, gnomes, goblins, griffins, mermaids, talking animals, trolls, unicorns, or witches, and usually magic or enchantments. The characters and motifs of fairy tales are simple and archetypal: princesses and goose-girls; youngest sons and gallant princes; ogres, giants, dragons, and trolls; wicked stepmothers and false heroes; fairy godmothers and other magical helpers, often talking horses, or foxes, or birds; glass mountains; and prohibitions and breaking of prohibitions.
Fairy tales such as "Jack the Giant Killer" have formed the modern perception of giants as stupid and violent monsters, sometimes said to eat humans, while other giants tend to eat the livestock.

Children's literature

childrenchildren's bookschildren's book
The term is mainly used for stories with origins in European tradition and, at least in recent centuries, mostly relates to children's literature.
Charles Perrault began recording fairy tales in France, publishing his first collection in 1697.

Madame d'Aulnoy

Marie Catherine d'AulnoyMarie-Catherine d'AulnoyComtesse d’Aulnoy
Fairy tales occur both in oral and in literary form; the name "fairy tale" ("conte de fées" in French) was first ascribed to them by Madame d'Aulnoy in the late 17th century.
Marie-Catherine Le Jumel de Barneville, Baroness d'Aulnoy (1650/1651–4 January 1705), also known as Countess d'Aulnoy, was a French writer known for her fairy tales.

Youngest son

youngestyoungest daughteryounger
The characters and motifs of fairy tales are simple and archetypal: princesses and goose-girls; youngest sons and gallant princes; ogres, giants, dragons, and trolls; wicked stepmothers and false heroes; fairy godmothers and other magical helpers, often talking horses, or foxes, or birds; glass mountains; and prohibitions and breaking of prohibitions.
The youngest son is a stock character in fairy tales, where he features as the hero.

Incantation

spellspellsenchanted
Such stories typically feature entities such as dwarfs, dragons, elves, fairies, giants, gnomes, goblins, griffins, mermaids, talking animals, trolls, unicorns, or witches, and usually magic or enchantments.
In medieval literature, folklore, fairy tales and modern fantasy fiction, enchantments are charms or spells.

Gnome

gnomesgarden gnomegnomish
Such stories typically feature entities such as dwarfs, dragons, elves, fairies, giants, gnomes, goblins, griffins, mermaids, talking animals, trolls, unicorns, or witches, and usually magic or enchantments.
Other uses of the term gnome remain obscure until the early 19th century, when it is taken up by authors of Romanticist collections of fairy tales and becomes mostly synonymous with the older word goblin.

Fairy godmother

godmotherThe Fairy GodmotherCinderella's Mother
The characters and motifs of fairy tales are simple and archetypal: princesses and goose-girls; youngest sons and gallant princes; ogres, giants, dragons, and trolls; wicked stepmothers and false heroes; fairy godmothers and other magical helpers, often talking horses, or foxes, or birds; glass mountains; and prohibitions and breaking of prohibitions.
In fairy tales, a fairy godmother (fée marraine) is a fairy with magical powers who acts as a mentor or parent to someone, in the role that an actual godparent was expected to play in many societies.

Stepmother

wicked stepmotherstep-motherstep mother
The characters and motifs of fairy tales are simple and archetypal: princesses and goose-girls; youngest sons and gallant princes; ogres, giants, dragons, and trolls; wicked stepmothers and false heroes; fairy godmothers and other magical helpers, often talking horses, or foxes, or birds; glass mountains; and prohibitions and breaking of prohibitions.
The character of the wicked stepmother features heavily in fairy tales; the most famous examples are Cinderella, Snow White, and Hansel and Gretel.

Fairy

fairiesfaeriesfaerie
Such stories typically feature entities such as dwarfs, dragons, elves, fairies, giants, gnomes, goblins, griffins, mermaids, talking animals, trolls, unicorns, or witches, and usually magic or enchantments.
The concept of "fairy" in the narrower sense is unique to English folklore, later made diminutive in accordance with prevailing tastes of the Victorian era, as in "fairy tales" for children.

Happy ending

happily ever afterhappy endended happily
In less technical contexts, the term is also used to describe something blessed with unusual happiness, as in "fairy-tale ending" (a happy ending) or "fairy-tale romance". A fairy tale with a tragic rather than a happy end is called an anti-fairy tale.
A happy ending is epitomized in the standard fairy tale ending phrase, "happily ever after" or "and they lived happily ever after".

Ogre

ogresogressbiloo
The characters and motifs of fairy tales are simple and archetypal: princesses and goose-girls; youngest sons and gallant princes; ogres, giants, dragons, and trolls; wicked stepmothers and false heroes; fairy godmothers and other magical helpers, often talking horses, or foxes, or birds; glass mountains; and prohibitions and breaking of prohibitions.
They appear in many classic works of literature, and are most often associated in fairy tales and legend with a taste for infants.

False hero

false bridedaughterbrothers
The characters and motifs of fairy tales are simple and archetypal: princesses and goose-girls; youngest sons and gallant princes; ogres, giants, dragons, and trolls; wicked stepmothers and false heroes; fairy godmothers and other magical helpers, often talking horses, or foxes, or birds; glass mountains; and prohibitions and breaking of prohibitions.
The false hero is a stock character in fairy tales, and sometimes also in ballads.

Anti-fairy tale

Anti-Fairy Talesfairy tale
A fairy tale with a tragic rather than a happy end is called an anti-fairy tale.
An anti-fairy tale, also called anti-tale, is a fairy tale which, unlike an ordinary one, has a tragic, rather than a happy ending, with the antagonists winning and the protagonists losing at the end of the story.

Short story

short storiesshort story writershort fiction
A fairy tale, wonder tale, magic tale, or Märchen is a folklore genre that takes the form of a short story.
In the 1690s, traditional fairy tales began to be published (one of the most famous collections was by Charles Perrault).

Andrew Lang

Lang, AndrewA. LangAndrew Lang (1844–1912)
However, the same essay excludes tales that are often considered fairy tales, citing as an example The Monkey's Heart, which Andrew Lang included in The Lilac Fairy Book.
He is best known as a collector of folk and fairy tales.

Charles Perrault

PerraultCharlescontes de Perrault
The genre was first marked out by writers of the Renaissance, such as Giovanni Francesco Straparola and Giambattista Basile, and stabilized through the works of later collectors such as Charles Perrault and the Brothers Grimm.
He laid the foundations for a new literary genre, the fairy tale, with his works derived from earlier folk tales.

The Hobbit

HobbitThe Hobbit, or There and Back Againbook
Before the definition of the genre of fantasy, many works that would now be classified as fantasy were termed "fairy tales", including Tolkien's The Hobbit, George Orwell's Animal Farm, and L. Frank Baum's The Wonderful Wizard of Oz.
The author's scholarly knowledge of Germanic philology and interest in mythology and fairy tales are often noted as influences.

Pentamerone

Lo Cunto de li CuntiLo cunto de li cunti overo lo trattenemiento de peccerilleThe Tale of Tales
The oldest forms, from Panchatantra to the Pentamerone, show considerable reworking from the oral form.
The Pentamerone (Neapolitan subtitle: Lo cunto de li cunti, "The Tale of Tales") is a seventeenth-century fairy tale collection by Italian poet and courtier Giambattista Basile.

Cupid and Psyche

PsycheAmor and PsycheEros and Psyche
Fairy tales appear, now and again, in written literature throughout literate cultures, as in The Golden Ass, which includes Cupid and Psyche (Roman, 100–200 AD), or the Panchatantra (India 3rd century BC), but it is unknown to what extent these reflect the actual folk tales even of their own time.
Although the only extended narrative from antiquity is that of Apuleius, Eros and Psyche appear in Greek art as early as the 4th century BC. The story's Neoplatonic elements and allusions to mystery religions accommodate multiple interpretations, and it has been analyzed as an allegory and in light of folktale, Märchen or fairy tale, and myth.

Giambattista Basile

Basile
The genre was first marked out by writers of the Renaissance, such as Giovanni Francesco Straparola and Giambattista Basile, and stabilized through the works of later collectors such as Charles Perrault and the Brothers Grimm.
Giambattista Basile (February 1566 – February 1632) was an Italian poet, courtier, and fairy tale collector.

The Heart of a Monkey

The Monkey's HeartThe friendship between a crocodile and a monkey
However, the same essay excludes tales that are often considered fairy tales, citing as an example The Monkey's Heart, which Andrew Lang included in The Lilac Fairy Book.
The Heart of a Monkey is a Swahili fairy tale collected by Edward Steere in Swahili Tales.

Jack Zipes

Zipes, Jack
According to Jack Zipes, "The subject matter of the conversations consisted of literature, mores, taste, and etiquette, whereby the speakers all endeavoured to portray ideal situations in the most effective oratorical style that would gradually have a major effect on literary forms."
Jack David Zipes (born 1937) is an American academic and folklorist who has published and lectured on the subject of fairy tales, their evolution, and their social and political role in civilizing processes.

Legend

legendarylegendary historylegends
However, unlike legends and epics, fairy tales usually do not contain more than superficial references to religion and to actual places, people, and events; they take place "once upon a time" rather than in actual times. Fairy tales may be distinguished from other folk narratives such as legends (which generally involve belief in the veracity of the events described) and explicit moral tales, including beast fables.
In 1866, Jacob Grimm described the fairy tale as "poetic, legend historic."

Giovanni Francesco Straparola

StraparolaGianfrancesco StraparolaStraparole
The genre was first marked out by writers of the Renaissance, such as Giovanni Francesco Straparola and Giambattista Basile, and stabilized through the works of later collectors such as Charles Perrault and the Brothers Grimm.
This collection includes some of the first known printed versions of fairy tales in Europe, as they are known today.