A report on Fasces

A fasces image, with the axe in the middle of the bundle of rods
Aquila
(Legionary eagle), toga figure, and fasces on reverse side of coinage.
Rome, cloister of San Paolo, outside wall: marble panel with the six facie bundles.
Seal of the United States Senate with two fasces at bottom.
The reverse of the Mercury dime, with a fasces
Emancipation Memorial
Ornate woodwork on railing in Minnesota Supreme Court Chamber.
War Flag of the Italian Social Republic
Eagle perched on fasces as adorned on caps and helmets of Fascist Italy
Fuselage roundel used on aircraft of the Italian air force during the Fascist period
Roundel used on the wings of aircraft of the Italian air force during the Fascist period
The unofficial but common National Emblem of France depicts a fasces, representing justice
Images from Les Grands Palais de France : Fontainebleau
Great Seal of France, 1848
Fasces bestride Speaker's rostrum in the House chamber of the US Capitol
Above the door leading out of the Oval Office
1989 US Congress Bicentennial commemorative coin reverse, depicting mace of the United States House of Representatives
The mace of the United States House of Representatives, designed to resemble a fasces
The seal of the United States Tax Court
The Lincoln Memorial with the fronts of the chair arms shaped to resemble fasces
Flanking the image of Lincoln at the Gettysburg Address memorial
The seal of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts
Above the door to Chicago's City Hall
The flag of the New York City borough of Brooklyn
At the entrance to San Francisco's Coit Tower
Shoulder Sleeve Insignia of the 18th MP Brigade
Shoulder Sleeve Insignia of the 42nd MP Brigade
Statue of George Washington at the site of his inauguration as first president of the United States, now occupied by Federal Hall National Memorial, includes a fasces to the subject's rear right
Horatio Stone's 1848 statue of Alexander Hamilton displays a fasces below Hamilton's hand
Shoulder Sleeve Insignia of US Army Reserve Legal Command
Portion of The Apotheosis of Washington, a fresco mural suspended above the rotunda of the United States Capitol Building.
Regimental Coat of Arms of the United States Military Police Corps.
The coat of arms of the Swiss canton of St. Gallen has displayed the fasces since 1803
Flag of the National Fascist Party of Italy (1915 - 1945). Fascism used the fasces as its political symbol.
Greater coat of arms of Italy of 1929-1943, during the Fascist era, bearing the fasces
Fragment of the facade of the building of the Silesian Parliament in Katowice
The original flag of the British Union of Fascists
Emblem of the Guardia Civil, a law enforcement agency from Spain
The Grand Coat of Arms of Vilnius, Lithuania bearing the fasces
The emblem of the Russian Federal Penitentiary Service, bearing the fasces
The emblem of the Russian Federal Bailiffs Service, bearing the fasces
Insignia of the Philippine Constabulary, bearing the fasces
Coat of arms of the Batavian Republic, bearing the fasces
thumb|Coat of arms of the Swedish Police Authority.
thumb|Coat of arms of the Norwegian Police Service|alt=Coat of arms of the Norwegian Police Service.
Flag of the Tripartite Pact
An alternate flag of the British Union of Fascists

Bound bundle of wooden rods, sometimes including an axe (occasionally two axes) with its blade emerging.

- Fasces
A fasces image, with the axe in the middle of the bundle of rods

36 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Gold coin from Dacia, minted by Coson, depicting a consul and two lictors

Lictor

5 links

Roman civil servant who was an attendant and bodyguard to a magistrate who held imperium.

Roman civil servant who was an attendant and bodyguard to a magistrate who held imperium.

Gold coin from Dacia, minted by Coson, depicting a consul and two lictors
A fasces was the symbol of a Lictor
Head of Libertas, and on the reverse a consul flanked by two lictors on a denarius
A Lictor is sent to arrest Publilius Volero (The Comic History of Rome by Gilbert Abbott à Beckett.)

They carried rods decorated with fasces and, outside the pomerium, with axes that symbolized the power to carry out capital punishment.

Roman provinces on the eve of the assassination of Julius Caesar, 44 BC

Roman Republic

5 links

State of the classical Roman civilization, run through public representation of the Roman people.

State of the classical Roman civilization, run through public representation of the Roman people.

Roman provinces on the eve of the assassination of Julius Caesar, 44 BC
Roman provinces on the eve of the assassination of Julius Caesar, 44 BC
The "Capitoline Brutus", a bust possibly depicting Lucius Junius Brutus, who led the revolt against Rome's last king and was a founder of the Republic.
Roman provinces on the eve of the assassination of Julius Caesar, 44 BC
Map showing Roman expansion in Italy.
The Temple of Hercules Victor, Rome, built in the mid 2nd century BC, most likely by Lucius Mummius Achaicus, who won the Achaean War.
Pyrrhus' route in Italy and Sicily.
Bust of Pyrrhus, found in the Villa of the Papyri at Herculaneum, now in the Naples Archaeological Museum. Pyrrhus was a brave and chivalrous general who fascinated the Romans, explaining his presence in a Roman house.
Coin of Hiero II of Syracuse.
The Roman Republic before the First Punic War.
Diagram of a corvus.
Denarius of C. Caecilius Metellus Caprarius, 125 BC. The reverse depicts the triumph of his great-grandfather Lucius, with the elephants he had captured at Panormos. The elephant had thence become the emblem of the powerful Caecilii Metelli.
Principal offensives of the war: Rome (red), Hannibal (green), Hasdrubal (purple).
A Carthaginian quarter shekel, perhaps minted in Spain. The obverse may depict Hannibal under the traits of young Melqart. The reverse features one of his famous war elephants.
Roman marble bust of Scipio Africanus, found in the Tomb of the Scipios.
Scene of the Battle of Corinth (146 BC): last day before the Roman legions looted and burned the Greek city of Corinth. The last day on Corinth, Tony Robert-Fleury, 1870.
Bust, traditionally identified as Gaius Marius, instigator of the Marian reforms.
Denarius of Faustus Cornelius Sulla, 56 BC. It shows Diana on the obverse, while the reverse depicts Sulla being offered an olive branch by his ally Bocchus I. Jugurtha is shown captive on the right.
A Roman marble head of Pompey (now in the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek)
Map of the Gallic Wars
The Tusculum portrait, a Roman sculpture of Julius Caesar, Archaeological Museum of Turin, Italy
The Curia Julia, the senate house started by Julius Caesar in 44 BC and completed by Octavian in 29 BC, replacing the Curia Cornelia as the meeting place of the Senate.
The Roman Forum, the commercial, cultural, religious, and political center of the city and the Republic which housed the various offices and meeting places of the government
Detail from the Ahenobarbus relief showing (centre-right) two Roman foot-soldiers c. 122 BC. Note the Montefortino-style helmets with horsehair plume, chain mail cuirasses with shoulder reinforcement, oval shields with calfskin covers, gladius and pilum.
Roman warrior, fresco in Pompeii, ca. 80—20 BC
A Roman naval bireme depicted in a relief from the Temple of Fortuna Primigenia in Praeneste, c. 120 BC; now in the Museo Pio-Clementino in the Vatican Museums
Temple of Janus as seen in the present church of San Nicola in Carcere, in the Forum Holitorium of Rome, Italy, dedicated by Gaius Duilius after his naval victory at the Battle of Mylae in 260 BC
An inscribed funerary relief of Aurelius Hermia and his wife Aurelia Philematum, former slaves who married after their manumission, 80 BC, from a tomb along the Via Nomentana in Rome
The "Togatus Barberini", depicting a Roman senator holding the imagines (effigies) of deceased ancestors in his hands; marble, late 1st century BC; head (not belonging): mid 1st century BC
Ruins of the Aqua Anio Vetus, a Roman aqueduct built in 272 BC
The Temple of Portunus, god of grain storage, keys, livestock and ports. Rome, built between 120 and 80 BC
The tomb of the Flavii, a necropolis outside the Nucerian gate (Porta Nocera) of Pompeii, Italy, constructed 50–30 BC
Denarius of Lucius Caesius, 112–111 BC. On the obverse is Apollo, as written on the monogram behind his head, who also wears the attributes of Vejovis, an obscure deity. The obverse depicts a group of statues representing the Lares Praestites, which was described by Ovid.
Inside the "Temple of Mercury" at Baiae, a swimming pool for a Roman bath, built during the late Roman Republic, and containing one of the largest domes in the world before the building of the Pantheon
Denarius of Caesar, minted just before his murder, in 44 BC. It was the first Roman coin bearing the portrait of a living person. The lituus and culullus depicted behind his head refer to his augurate and pontificate. The reverse with Venus alludes to his claimed descent from the goddess.
The ruins of the Servian Wall, built during the 4th century BC, one of the earliest ancient Roman defensive walls
The Orator, c. 100 BC, an Etrusco-Roman statue of a Republican senator, wearing toga praetexta and senatorial shoes; compared to the voluminous, costly, impractical togas of the Imperial era, the Republican-era type is frugal and "skimpy" (exigua).
Banquet scene, fresco, Herculaneum, Italy, c. 50 BC
The Amphitheatre of Pompeii, built around 70 BC and buried by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius 79 AD, once hosted spectacles with gladiators.

They retained several elements of the former kingly regalia, such as the toga praetexta, and the fasces, which represented the power to inflict physical punishment.

The ancient quarters of Rome

Roman Kingdom

4 links

The earliest period of Roman history when the city and its territory were ruled by kings.

The earliest period of Roman history when the city and its territory were ruled by kings.

The ancient quarters of Rome
A map of Rome in 753 BC. Colours show topography, with green lowlands and brown highlands. The Latin names of hills are included in all caps.
Growth of the city region during the kingdom
A map of the City of the Four Regions, roughly corresponding to the city limits during the later kingdom. The division is traditionally, though probably incorrectly, attributed to Servius Tullius. The seven hills of Rome are shown in green, with Latin names.
The Capitoline Brutus, an ancient Roman bust from the Capitoline Museums is traditionally identified as a portrait of Lucius Junius Brutus

The insignia of the kings of Rome were twelve lictors (attendants or servants) wielding the symbolic fasces bearing axes, the right to sit upon a curule seat, the purple toga picta, red shoes, and a white diadem around the head.

Imperium

4 links

Form of authority held by a citizen to control a military or governmental entity.

Form of authority held by a citizen to control a military or governmental entity.

Imperium was indicated in two prominent ways: a curule magistrate or promagistrate carried an ivory baton surmounted by an eagle as his personal symbol of office (compare the field marshal's baton); any such magistrate was also escorted by lictors bearing the fasces (traditional symbols of imperium and authority), when outside the pomerium, axes being added to the fasces to indicate an imperial magistrate's power to inflict capital punishment outside Rome (the axes being removed within the pomerium).

Extent of Etruscan civilisation and the twelve Etruscan League cities.

Etruscan civilization

4 links

Now Tuscany, western Umbria, and northern Lazio, as well as what are now the Po Valley, Emilia-Romagna, south-eastern Lombardy, southern Veneto, and western Campania.

Now Tuscany, western Umbria, and northern Lazio, as well as what are now the Po Valley, Emilia-Romagna, south-eastern Lombardy, southern Veneto, and western Campania.

Extent of Etruscan civilisation and the twelve Etruscan League cities.
Biconical cinerary urn with crest-shaped helmet lid, 9th–8th century BC, from Monterozzi (Fontanaccia), Tarquinia, Museo archeologico nazionale
Urn in the shape of a hut, which represents the typical Etruscan house of the Villanovan phase, 8th century BC, from Vulci, Musée d'art et d'histoire de Genève
Etruscan pendant with swastika symbols from Bolsena, Italy, 700–650 BC. Louvre
Putto Graziani, hollow-cast bronze on which is engraved the Etruscan inscription "To the god Tec Sans as a gift" (Tec Sans was the protectress of childhood), 3-2nd century BC, Rome, Museo Gregoriano Etrusco
Sarcophagus of the Spouses, about 1st century BC, Volterra, Museo etrusco Guarnacci
Painted terracotta Sarcophagus of Seianti Hanunia Tlesnasa, about 150–130 BC.
Ethnic groups of Italy (as defined by today's borders) in 400 BC
Etruscan territories and major spread pathways of Etruscan products
The Mars of Todi, an Etruscan bronze sculpture, c. 400 BC
A former Etruscan walled town, Civita di Bagnoregio
The Capitoline Wolf, long considered an Etruscan bronze, feeding the twins Romulus and Remus
Etruscan mother and child, 500–450 BC
Sarcophagus of the Spouses, (Louvre, Room 18)
Etruscan warrior, found near Viterbo, Italy, dated c. undefined 500 BC
3D view, facing west, of the Etruscan Hypogeum of the Volumnis, Perugia, Italy, cut from a laser scan
5th century BC fresco of dancers and musicians, Tomb of the Leopards, Monterozzi necropolis, Tarquinia, Italy
Janiform kantharos, Etruscan pottery, second half of the 4th century BC.
Cippus Perusinus. 3rd–2nd century BC, San Marco near Perugia
Samples of Etruscan script, from the Liber linteus

The last kings may have borne the Etruscan title lucumo, while the regalia were traditionally considered of Etruscan origin – the golden crown, the sceptre, the toga palmata (a special robe), the sella curulis (curule chair), and above all the primary symbol of state power: the fasces.

Flavius Anastasius (consul of the Eastern Roman Empire for AD 517) in consular garb, holding a sceptre and the mappa, a piece of cloth used to signal the start of chariot races at the Hippodrome. Ivory panel from his consular diptych.

Roman consul

3 links

A consul held the highest elected political office of the Roman Republic (c.

A consul held the highest elected political office of the Roman Republic (c.

Flavius Anastasius (consul of the Eastern Roman Empire for AD 517) in consular garb, holding a sceptre and the mappa, a piece of cloth used to signal the start of chariot races at the Hippodrome. Ivory panel from his consular diptych.
An antoninianus commemorating the third consulate ("COS III") of the emperor Philip (248 AD).

The consuls alternated in holding fasces – taking turns leading – each month when both were in Rome and a consul's imperium extended over Rome and all its provinces.

Panel from a representation of a triumph of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius; a winged genius hovers above his head

Roman triumph

3 links

Civil ceremony and religious rite of ancient Rome, held to publicly celebrate and sanctify the success of a military commander who had led Roman forces to victory in the service of the state or in some historical traditions, one who had successfully completed a foreign war.

Civil ceremony and religious rite of ancient Rome, held to publicly celebrate and sanctify the success of a military commander who had led Roman forces to victory in the service of the state or in some historical traditions, one who had successfully completed a foreign war.

Panel from a representation of a triumph of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius; a winged genius hovers above his head
Scene from the Triumphs of Caesar by Andrea Mantegna (1482–94, now Royal Collection)
Detail from the Arch of Titus showing his triumph held in 71 for his successful Sack of Jerusalem.
Segment XX of the Fasti triumphales, a portion recording triumphs during the First Punic War
The Triumph of Bacchus, a Roman mosaic from Africa Proconsolaris, dated 3rd century CE, now in the Sousse Archaeological Museum, Tunisia
Flemish tapestry in the smoking room of the Palace of the Marqués de Dos Aguas
Miniature representation of the emperor Basil II's triumphal procession through the Forum of Constantinople, from the (Madrid Skylitzes)
Charles V announcing the capture of Tunis to Pope Paul III, as imagined in an anonymous sixteenth century tapestry

Next in line, all on foot, came Rome's senators and magistrates, followed by the general's lictors in their red war-robes, their fasces wreathed in laurel, then the general in his four-horse chariot.

Map of Rome in the time of Augustus. The pomerium at that time is marked in pink; the Capitoline and Aventine are extra pomerium, "beyond the wall", with their boundaries in yellow.

Pomerium

4 links

Religious boundary around the city of Rome and cities controlled by Rome.

Religious boundary around the city of Rome and cities controlled by Rome.

Map of Rome in the time of Augustus. The pomerium at that time is marked in pink; the Capitoline and Aventine are extra pomerium, "beyond the wall", with their boundaries in yellow.
Inscription marking the Claudian pomerium in via del Pellegrino

The magistrates who held imperium did not have full power inside the pomerium. They could have a citizen beaten, but not sentenced to death. This was symbolised by removing the axes from the fasces carried by the magistrate's lictors. Only a dictator's lictors could carry fasces containing axes inside the pomerium.

Philadelphia Mint Superintendent Adam M. Joyce decried the Lincoln cent and other new coinage, believing that they struck badly. Plaquette by George T. Morgan.

Mercury dime

1 links

Ten-cent coin struck by the United States Mint from late 1916 to 1945.

Ten-cent coin struck by the United States Mint from late 1916 to 1945.

Philadelphia Mint Superintendent Adam M. Joyce decried the Lincoln cent and other new coinage, believing that they struck badly. Plaquette by George T. Morgan.
Mint Director Robert W. Woolley (seen on his Mint medal, designed by Assistant Engraver George T. Morgan) advocated for the end of the Barber coinage, though he may not have understood he did not have to replace them.
Adolph Weinman is widely believed to have used his neighbor, Elsie Stevens, as the model for the Mercury dime.
Weinman's 1909 statue of Victory in Baltimore's Union Soldiers and Sailors' Monument has features said to bear a resemblance to those on the Mercury dime.
A pattern of the 1916 Mercury dime as illustrated in that year's Mint Director's Report. Note that the head is further to the right of the coin than on the issued piece and the head covers less of the "E". Weinman's monogram is also absent.
The 1916 United States Assay Commission met on February 9 and February 10, 1916, to test coins from the previous year to ensure they met specifications. Among the members and Mint officials shown were then-Mint Director Robert W. Woolley (standing fourth from left), Engraver of the United States Mint at Philadelphia Charles E. Barber (standing third from left) and Philadelphia Mint Superintendent Adam Joyce (standing at far right).
The Mint medal for Director Friedrich Johannes Hugo von Engelken, designed by George T. Morgan, who was then assistant engraver.
2016-W Gold Mercury dime

The coin's reverse depicts a fasces, symbolizing unity and strength, and an olive branch, signifying peace.

National Fascist Party

1 links

Italian political party, created by Benito Mussolini as the political expression of Italian Fascism and as a reorganization of the previous Italian Fasces of Combat.

Italian political party, created by Benito Mussolini as the political expression of Italian Fascism and as a reorganization of the previous Italian Fasces of Combat.

Mussolini during the 1920s
Benito Mussolini with Fascist Blackshirts during the March on Rome
Mussolini in an official portrait
An Italian wartime propaganda poster promising a "return" to Italian East Africa which fell to British and colonial forces in a campaign in January–November 1941
Residents of Fiume cheer the arrival of Gabriele D'Annunzio and his blackshirt-wearing nationalist raiders, as D'Annunzio's actions in Fiume inspired the Italian Fascist movement
From 1925, Mussolini styled himself Il Duce ("the leader")
Fascist rally near the Coliseum in Rome
Mussolini with Adolf Hitler
Eagle clutching a fasces, a common symbol of Italian Fascism, regularly used on uniforms and caps
Flag of the National Fascist Party

The fasces adorned public buildings, Fascist mottos and symbols were displayed in art and a personality cult was created around Mussolini as the nation's saviour called "Il Duce", "The Leader".