Fascism

fascistfascistsFascist regimefascisticpro-fascistFascist movementanti-fascistFascist erafascist dictatorshipFascist politics
Fascism is a form of far-right, authoritarian ultranationalism characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition, and strong regimentation of society and of the economy which came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe.wikipedia
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Italian Fascism

FascistItalian FascistFascism
The first fascist movements emerged in Italy during World War I, before spreading to other European countries.
Italian Fascism (fascismo italiano), also known as Classical Fascism or simply Fascism, is the original fascist ideology as developed in Italy.

Fascism in Europe

European fascismEuropean fascistsfascism
The first fascist movements emerged in Italy during World War I, before spreading to other European countries.
Fascism in Europe was the set of various fascist ideologies practiced by governments and political organizations in Europe during the 20th century.

Far-right politics

far-rightfar rightextreme right
Fascism is a form of far-right, authoritarian ultranationalism characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition, and strong regimentation of society and of the economy which came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe.
Used to describe the historical experiences of fascism and Nazism, it today includes neo-fascism, neo-Nazism, Third Position, the alt-right, and other ideologies or organizations that feature ultranationalist, chauvinist, xenophobic, racist, anti-communist, or reactionary views.

Fascist (insult)

fascistfascistscorrupting
Since the end of World War II in 1945, few parties have openly described themselves as fascist, and the term is instead now usually used pejoratively by political opponents.
Since the emergence of fascism in Europe in the first half of the 20th century, the term "fascist" has frequently been used as a pejorative epithet against a wide range of individuals, political movements, governments, public and private institutions.

Neo-fascism

neo-fascistneofascistneo-fascists
The descriptions neo-fascist or post-fascist are sometimes applied more formally to describe parties of the far-right with ideologies similar to, or rooted in, 20th-century fascist movements.
Neo-fascism is a post–World War II ideology that includes significant elements of fascism.

National Fascist Party

Fascist PartyFascistItalian Fascist Party
In 1919, Mussolini founded the Fasci Italiani di Combattimento in Milan, which became the Partito Nazionale Fascista (National Fascist Party) two years later.
The National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF) was an Italian political party, created by Benito Mussolini as the political expression of fascism (previously represented by groups known as Fasci).

One-party state

one-partyone-one-party system
Fascists believe that liberal democracy is obsolete and regard the complete mobilization of society under a totalitarian one-party state as necessary to prepare a nation for armed conflict and to respond effectively to economic difficulties.

Fasces

fascio littorioRoman fascesbundle of sticks
The Italian term fascismo is derived from fascio meaning "a bundle of sticks", ultimately from the Latin word fasces.
The fasces frequently occurs as a charge in heraldry: it is present on the reverse of the U.S. Mercury dime coin and behind the podium in the United States House of Representatives; and it was the origin of the name of the National Fascist Party in Italy (from which the term fascism is derived).

Anti-communism

anti-communistanticommunistanti-communists
The Fascists presented themselves as anti-Marxists and as opposed to the Marxists.
Anti-communism has been an element of movements which hold many different political positions, including conservatism, fascism, liberalism, nationalism and social democracy as well as anarchist or libertarian and even socialist and anti-Stalinist left viewpoints.

Nazism

NaziNazisNational Socialism
He claims that National Socialism and communism are essentially manifestations of populism and that states such as National Socialist Germany and Fascist Italy are more different than similar.
Nazism is a form of fascism and showed that ideology's disdain for liberal democracy and the parliamentary system, but also incorporated fervent antisemitism, anti-communism, scientific racism, and eugenics into its creed.

Political spectrum

political compassPolitical positionpolitical orientation
All traditionally fall into the far-right sector of any political spectrum, catalyzed by afflicted class identities over conventional social inequities
While communism and socialism are usually regarded internationally as being on the left, conservatism and fascism are regarded internationally as being on the right.

Autarky

autarkicclosed economyautarchic
Fascists advocate a mixed economy, with the principal goal of achieving autarky (national economic self-sufficiency) through protectionist and interventionist economic policies.
Fascist and far-right movements occasionally claimed to strive for autarky in platforms or in propaganda, but in practice crushed existing movements towards self-sufficiency and established extensive capital connections in efforts to ready for expansionist war and genocide while allying with traditional business elites.

Populism

populistpopulistsPopulist Movement
He claims that National Socialism and communism are essentially manifestations of populism and that states such as National Socialist Germany and Fascist Italy are more different than similar. Roger Griffin describes fascism as "a genus of political ideology whose mythic core in its various permutations is a palingenetic form of populist ultranationalism".
It thus differs from the "thick-centred" or "full" ideologies such as fascism, liberalism, and socialism, which provide more far-reaching ideas about social transformation.

Totalitarianism

totalitariantotalitarian statetotalitarian regime
Fascists believe that liberal democracy is obsolete and regard the complete mobilization of society under a totalitarian one-party state as necessary to prepare a nation for armed conflict and to respond effectively to economic difficulties.
The term was later assigned a positive meaning in the writings of Giovanni Gentile, Italy's most prominent philosopher and leading theorist of fascism.

Falange Española de las JONS

FalangeFalangistFalangists
Spanish Falangist leader José Antonio Primo de Rivera said: "[B]asically the Right stands for the maintenance of an economic structure, albeit an unjust one, while the Left stands for the attempt to subvert that economic structure, even though the subversion thereof would entail the destruction of much that was worthwhile".
The Falange Española de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalista (FE de las JONS; English: Spanish Phalanx of the Councils of the National Syndicalist Offensive), was a fascist political party founded in 1934 as merger of the Falange Española and the Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista.

Palingenesis

palingeneticpalingenesiare-created again
Roger Griffin describes fascism as "a genus of political ideology whose mythic core in its various permutations is a palingenetic form of populist ultranationalism".
In political theory, it is a central component of Roger Griffin's analysis of fascism as a fundamentally modernist ideology.

Italian Social Republic

Republic of SalòRSIItaly
While continuing to rely on Germany for support, Mussolini and the remaining loyal Fascists founded the Italian Social Republic with Mussolini as head of state.
The Italian Social Republic was the second and last incarnation of the Italian Fascist state and was led by Duce Benito Mussolini and his reformed anti-monarchist Republican Fascist Party which tried to modernise and revise fascist doctrine into a more moderate and sophisticated direction.

Liberalism

liberalliberalssocially liberal
Opposed to liberalism, Marxism, and anarchism, fascism is placed on the far-right within the traditional left–right spectrum.
Before 1920, the main ideological opponents of liberalism were Marxist communism, conservatism and socialism, but liberalism then faced major ideological challenges from new opponents, fascism and Marxism-Leninism.

Right-wing politics

right-wingrightright wing
Fascism was founded during World War I by Italian national syndicalists who drew upon both left-wing organizational tactics and right-wing political views.
Although the right-wing originated with traditional conservatives, monarchists, and reactionaries, the term extreme right-wing has also been applied to movements including fascism, Nazism, and racial supremacy.

Dictatorship

dictatorialdictatorshipsdictator
Such a state is led by a strong leader—such as a dictator and a martial government composed of the members of the governing fascist party—to forge national unity and maintain a stable and orderly society.
Between the two world wars, four types of dictatorships have been described: Constitutional, Communist (nominally championing the "dictatorship of the proletariat"), Counterrevolutionary and Fascist.

Roger Eatwell

Eatwell, Roger
Roger Eatwell defines fascism as a "an ideology that strives to forge social rebirth based on a holistic-national radical Third Way", while Walter Laqueur sees the core tenets of fascism as "self-evident: nationalism; social Darwinism; racialism, the need for leadership, a new aristocracy, and obedience; and the negation of the ideals of the Enlightenment and the French Revolution."
Since the late 1970s Eatwell has engaged in research in fascism and populism.

Faisceau

Le Faisceau
Georges Valois, founder of the first non-Italian fascist party Faisceau, claimed the roots of fascism stemmed from the late 18th century Jacobin movement, seeing in its totalitarian nature a foreshadowing of the fascist state.
Le Faisceau (, The Fasces) was a short-lived French Fascist political party.

Social fascism

social fascistssocial fascistsocial-fascism
Chinese Marxists used the term to denounce the Soviet Union during the Sino-Soviet Split, and likewise the Soviets used the term to denounce Chinese Marxists and social democracy (coining a new term in "social fascism").
Social fascism was a theory supported by the Communist International (Comintern) and affiliated communist parties during the early 1930s, which held that social democracy was a variant of fascism because — in addition to a shared corporatist economic model — it stood in the way of a dictatorship of the proletariat.

Zeev Sternhell

Sternhell, ZeevZe'ev Sternhellpipe-bomb attack against Ze'ev Sternhell
The historian Zeev Sternhell has traced the ideological roots of fascism back to the 1880s and in particular to the fin de siècle theme of that time.
He is one of the world's leading experts on fascism.

John Lukacs

Lukacs, JohnJohn LukácsLukacs, J.
Historian John Lukacs argues that there is no such thing as generic fascism.
He identified populism as the essence of both National Socialism and Communism, denying the existence of generic fascism and asserted that the differences between the political regimes of Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy were greater than their similarities.