Father Le Loutre's War

Father Le Loutre’s Wara guerrilla warengaged in a campaign to consolidatefrontier warfare that followed the founding of HalifaxLunenburg RebellionMicmac Warpetite guerre
Father Le Loutre's War (1749–1755), also known as the Indian War, the Micmac War and the Anglo-Micmac War, took place between King George's War and the French and Indian War in Acadia and Nova Scotia.wikipedia
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Nova Scotia

NSNova Scotia, CanadaNova Scotian
Father Le Loutre's War (1749–1755), also known as the Indian War, the Micmac War and the Anglo-Micmac War, took place between King George's War and the French and Indian War in Acadia and Nova Scotia.
Father Le Loutre's War (1749–1755) began when Edward Cornwallis arrived to establish Halifax with 13 transports on 21 June 1749.

Acadia

Acadiel'AcadieHistory of Acadia
Father Le Loutre's War (1749–1755), also known as the Indian War, the Micmac War and the Anglo-Micmac War, took place between King George's War and the French and Indian War in Acadia and Nova Scotia.
The British took New Brunswick in Father Le Loutre's War, and they took Île Royale and Île Saint-Jean in 1758 following the French and Indian War.

Jean-Louis Le Loutre

Abbe Le LoutreAbbe LeLoutreFather Le Loutre
On the other side, Father Jean-Louis Le Loutre led the Mi'kmaq and the Acadia militia in guerrilla warfare against settlers and British forces.
Le Loutre became the leader of the French forces and the Acadian and Mi'kmaq militias during King George's War and Father Le Loutre’s War in the eighteenth-century struggle for power between the French, Acadians, and Miꞌkmaq against the British over Acadia (present-day Nova Scotia and New Brunswick).

Acadian Exodus

an exodusleavingleft Nova Scotia
During the war, the Acadians and Mi'kmaq left Nova Scotia for the French colonies of Ile St. Jean (Prince Edward Island) and Ile Royale (Cape Breton Island).
The Acadian Exodus (also known as the Acadian migration) happened during Father Le Loutre's War (1749–1755) and involved almost half of the total Acadian population of Nova Scotia deciding to relocate to French controlled territories.

Siege of Grand Pré

Siege of Grand Preattacked Fort Vieux LogisGrand Pré
In response, the Acadians and Mi'kmaq orchestrated attacks at Chignecto, Grand Pré, Dartmouth, Canso, Halifax and Country Harbour.
The Siege of Grand-Pré happened during Father Le Loutre's War and was fought between the British and the Wabanaki Confederacy and Acadian militia.

French and Indian War

French & Indian WarFrench and IndianSeven Years' War
Father Le Loutre's War (1749–1755), also known as the Indian War, the Micmac War and the Anglo-Micmac War, took place between King George's War and the French and Indian War in Acadia and Nova Scotia.
To the north, the Mi'kmaqs and the Abenakis were engaged in Father Le Loutre's War and still held sway in parts of Nova Scotia, Acadia, and the eastern portions of the province of Canada, as well as much of Maine.

Raid on Dartmouth (1751)

DartmouthRaid on DartmouthDartmouth Massacre
In response, the Acadians and Mi'kmaq orchestrated attacks at Chignecto, Grand Pré, Dartmouth, Canso, Halifax and Country Harbour.
The Raid on Dartmouth (also referred to as the Dartmouth Massacre) occurred during Father Le Loutre's War on May 13, 1751 when a Mi'kmaq and Acadian militia from Chignecto, under the command of Acadian Joseph Broussard, raided Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, destroying the town and killing twenty British villagers and wounding British regulars.

Battle at St. Croix

St. Croix
The British responded by attacking the Mi'kmaq and Acadians at Mirligueche (later known as Lunenburg), Chignecto and St. Croix.
The Battle at St. Croix was fought during Father Le Loutre's War between Gorham's Rangers and Mi'kmaq at Battle Hill in the community of St. Croix, Nova Scotia.

New Brunswick

NBProvince of New BrunswickNew Brunswick, Canada
About forty years later, the British made a concerted effort to settle Protestants in the region and to establish military control over all of Nova Scotia and present-day New Brunswick, igniting armed response from Acadians in Father Le Loutre's War.
From 1749 to 1755, the British engaged in a campaign to consolidate its control over Nova Scotia.

John Gorham (military officer)

John GorhamGorham's RangersGorham
On one side of the conflict, the British and New England colonists were led by British Officer Charles Lawrence and New England Ranger John Gorham.
John Gorham was active during King George's War and Father Le Loutre’s War.

Fort Gaspareaux

Fort Moncton - oldest British military gravestones in regionFort GaspereauFort Monckton
The French erected forts at present-day Fort Menagoueche, Fort Beauséjour and Fort Gaspareaux.
It was built during Father Le Loutre's War and is now a National Historic Site of Canada overlooking the Northumberland Strait.

Windsor, Nova Scotia

WindsorTown of WindsorTownship of Windsor
Finally, the British erected forts in Acadian communities located at Windsor, Grand Pre and Chignecto.
The area was central to both Father Le Loutre's War and the Expulsion of the Acadians during the Bay of Fundy Campaign in 1755.

Fort Menagoueche

Fort Charnisay
The French erected forts at present-day Fort Menagoueche, Fort Beauséjour and Fort Gaspareaux.
French Officer Charles Deschamps de Boishébert et de Raffetot and Ignace-Philippe Aubert de Gaspé built the fort during Father Le Loutre's War and eventually burned it themselves as the French retreated after losing the Battle of Beausejour.

King William's War

1688Indian warsSecond Indian War
Acadians joined French privateer Pierre Maisonnat dit Baptiste as crew members in his victories over many British vessels during King William's War.
It was the first of six colonial wars (see the four French and Indian Wars, Father Rale's War and Father Le Loutre's War) fought between New France and New England along with their respective Native allies before France ceded its remaining mainland territories in North America east of the Mississippi River in 1763.

Military history of the Acadians

Acadian militiaAcadia militiaAcadians
On the other side, Father Jean-Louis Le Loutre led the Mi'kmaq and the Acadia militia in guerrilla warfare against settlers and British forces.
Within 18 months of establishing Halifax, and the start of Father Le Loutre's War, the British took firm control of the Nova Scotia peninsula by building fortifications in all the major Acadian communities: present-day Windsor (Fort Edward); Grand Pré (Fort Vieux Logis) and Chignecto (Fort Lawrence).

Acadians

AcadianAcadian settlersFrench
About forty years later, the British made a concerted effort to settle Protestants in the region and to establish military control over all of Nova Scotia and present-day New Brunswick, igniting armed response from Acadians in Father Le Loutre's War.
Over a period of seventy-four years, six wars took place in Acadia and Nova Scotia in which the Confederacy and some Acadians fought to keep the British from taking over the region (See the four French and Indian Wars as well as Father Rale's War and Father Le Loutre's War).

Charles Lawrence (British Army officer)

Charles LawrenceGovernor Charles LawrenceCol. Charles Lawrence
On one side of the conflict, the British and New England colonists were led by British Officer Charles Lawrence and New England Ranger John Gorham.
During Father Le Loutre's War, in 1749 he transferred again, to the 40th Foot.

Canso, Nova Scotia

CansoRaid on CansoCanso Harbor
While the British captured Port Royal in 1710, the Mi'kmaq and Acadians continued to contain the British in settlements at Port Royal and Canso.
During Father Le Loutre's War, in August 1749, Lieutenant Joseph Gorham was at Canso and his party was attacked by Mi'kmaq.

Lawrencetown, Halifax County, Nova Scotia

LawrencetownLawrencetown, Nova ScotiaLawerencetown
The British unilaterally established communities in Lunenburg and Lawrencetown. To guard against Mi'kmaq, Acadian and French attacks on the new Protestant settlements, British fortifications were erected in Halifax (Citadel Hill in 1749), Bedford (Fort Sackville in 1749), Dartmouth (1750), Lunenburg (1753) and Lawrencetown (1754).
The settlement was established during the eve of Father Le Loutre's War and at the beginning of the French and Indian War.

45th (Nottinghamshire) (Sherwood Foresters) Regiment of Foot

45th Regiment of Foot45th Foot45th (Nottinghamshire) Regiment of Foot
At the outset of Le Loutre's war, along with the New England Ranger units, there were three British regiments at Halifax, the 40th Regiment of Foot arrived from Annapolis, while the 29th Regiment of Foot and 45th Regiment of Foot arrived from Louisbourg.
The regiment saw action during Father Le Loutre's War, the French and Indian War and the American Revolutionary War as well as the Peninsular War, the First Anglo-Burmese War and the Xhosa Wars.

Dummer's War

Father Rale's War1724against Canada
(Father Le Loutre tried to prevent the New Englanders from moving into present-day New Brunswick just as a generation earlier, during Father Rale's War, Rale had tried to prevent New Englanders from taking over present-day Maine.) Throughout the war, the Mi’kmaq and Acadians attacked the British forts in Nova Scotia and the newly established Protestant settlements.
Similarly, New France established three forts along the border of New Brunswick during Father Le Loutre's War to protect it from a British attack from Nova Scotia.

Country Harbour, Nova Scotia

Country Harbour
In response, the Acadians and Mi'kmaq orchestrated attacks at Chignecto, Grand Pré, Dartmouth, Canso, Halifax and Country Harbour.
During Father Le Loutre's War, on February 21, 1753, nine Mi'kmaq from present-day Antigonish (Nartigouneche) in canoes attacked an English vessel from Canso, Nova Scotia which had a crew of four at Country Harbour, Nova Scotia.

Joseph Broussard

Joseph Broussard dit BeausoleilBeausoleilBroussard
Le Loutre was also joined by the prominent Acadian resistance leader Joseph Broussard (Beausoleil).
Broussard organized a Mi'kmaq and Acadian militias against the British through King George's War, Father Le Loutre's War and during the French and Indian War.

Fort Sackville (Nova Scotia)

Fort Sackville
To guard against Mi'kmaq, Acadian and French attacks on the new Protestant settlements, British fortifications were erected in Halifax (Citadel Hill in 1749), Bedford (Fort Sackville in 1749), Dartmouth (1750), Lunenburg (1753) and Lawrencetown (1754).
Fort Sackville was a British fort located in present-day Bedford, Nova Scotia that was built during Father Le Loutre's War.

Fort Edward (Nova Scotia)

Fort EdwardFort Edward National Historic SiteFort Edward, Nova Scotia
Within 18 months of establishing Halifax, the British attempted to take control of the Nova Scotia peninsula by building fortifications in all the major Acadian communities: present-day Windsor (Fort Edward); Grand Pré (Fort Vieux Logis) and Chignecto (Fort Lawrence).
Fort Edward is a National Historic Site of Canada in Windsor, Nova Scotia, (formerly known as Pisiguit) and was built during Father Le Loutre's War (1749-1755).