Fc receptor

Fc receptorsFcγ receptorsFcFc surface receptorsFc-alpha receptorFc-epsilon receptorFc-epsilon receptorsFc-gamma receptorFc-receptorFc-receptor.
An Fc receptor is a protein found on the surface of certain cells – including, among others, B lymphocytes, follicular dendritic cells, natural killer cells, macrophages, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, human platelets, and mast cells – that contribute to the protective functions of the immune system.wikipedia
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Fragment crystallizable region

FcFc regionimmunoglobulin fc fragments
Its name is derived from its binding specificity for a part of an antibody known as the Fc (Fragment, crystallizable) region.
The fragment crystallizable region (Fc region) is the tail region of an antibody that interacts with cell surface receptors called Fc receptors and some proteins of the complement system.

Antibody-dependent enhancement

antibody dependent enhancementantibody-dependent enhancement of infection
Some viruses such as flaviviruses use Fc receptors to help them infect cells, by a mechanism known as antibody-dependent enhancement of infection.
The antiviral proteins (i.e., the antibodies) bind to antibody Fc receptors that some of these cells have in the plasma membrane.

Phagocytosis

phagocyticphagocytosedphagocytose
Their activity stimulates phagocytic or cytotoxic cells to destroy microbes, or infected cells by antibody-mediated phagocytosis or antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. All of the Fcγ receptors (FcγR) belong to the immunoglobulin superfamily and are the most important Fc receptors for inducing phagocytosis of opsonized (marked) microbes.
Macrophages initiate phagocytosis by mannose receptors, scavenger receptors, Fcγ receptors and complement receptors 1, 3 and 4.

Antibody

antibodiesimmunoglobulinimmunoglobulins
Its name is derived from its binding specificity for a part of an antibody known as the Fc (Fragment, crystallizable) region.
Thus, the Fc region ensures that each antibody generates an appropriate immune response for a given antigen, by binding to a specific class of Fc receptors, and other immune molecules, such as complement proteins.

Opsonin

opsonizationopsonizedopsonisation
All of the Fcγ receptors (FcγR) belong to the immunoglobulin superfamily and are the most important Fc receptors for inducing phagocytosis of opsonized (marked) microbes.
The Fab region of the antibody binds to the antigen, whereas the Fc region of the antibody binds to an Fc receptor on the phagocyte, facilitating phagocytosis.

Neonatal Fc receptor

FcRnFcγFcγRT
However, since this Fc receptor is also involved in transferring IgG from a mother either via the placenta to her fetus or in milk to her suckling infant, it is called the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn).
The neonatal Fc receptor is an Fc receptor which is similar in structure to the MHC class I molecule and also associates with beta-2-microglobulin.

Immunoglobulin A

IgASecretory IgAIgA1
For example, those that bind the most common class of antibody, IgG, are called Fc-gamma receptors (FcγR), those that bind IgA are called Fc-alpha receptors (FcαR) and those that bind IgE are called Fc-epsilon receptors (FcεR).
In the blood, IgA interacts with an Fc receptor called FcαRI (or CD89), which is expressed on immune effector cells, to initiate inflammatory reactions.

Immunoglobulin E

IgEIgE antibodiesImmunoglobulin E (IgE)
For example, those that bind the most common class of antibody, IgG, are called Fc-gamma receptors (FcγR), those that bind IgA are called Fc-alpha receptors (FcαR) and those that bind IgE are called Fc-epsilon receptors (FcεR).
IgE primes the IgE-mediated allergic response by binding to Fc receptors found on the surface of mast cells and basophils.

CD64 (biology)

CD64FcγRICD64a
CD64 (Cluster of Differentiation 64) is a type of integral membrane glycoprotein known as an Fc receptor that binds monomeric IgG-type antibodies with high affinity.

Inflammation

inflammatoryinflammatory responseinflamed
These mediators contribute to inflammation by attracting other leukocytes.
As well as endocytic PRRs, phagocytes also express opsonin receptors Fc receptor and complement receptor 1 (CR1), which bind to antibodies and C3b, respectively.

Fcα/μR

CD351
Fcα/μR, also known as is CD351 (Cluster of Differentiation 351), is an Fc receptor that binds IgM with high affinity and IgA with a 10-fold lower affinity.

Neutrophil

neutrophilsneutrophil granulocyteneutrophilic
An Fc receptor is a protein found on the surface of certain cells – including, among others, B lymphocytes, follicular dendritic cells, natural killer cells, macrophages, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, human platelets, and mast cells – that contribute to the protective functions of the immune system.
They also express receptors to detect and adhere to endothelium and Fc receptors for opsonin.

Immunoglobulin superfamily

Immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamilyimmunoglobulinIg
All of the Fcγ receptors (FcγR) belong to the immunoglobulin superfamily and are the most important Fc receptors for inducing phagocytosis of opsonized (marked) microbes.

Degranulation

degranulatedegranulatingmast cell degranulation
Activation of mast cells following engagement of FcεRI results in a process called degranulation, whereby the mast cell releases preformed molecules from its cytoplasmic granules; these are a mixture of compounds including histamine, proteoglycans, and serine proteases.
Antigens interact with IgE molecules already bound to high affinity Fc receptors on the surface of mast cells to induce degranulation, via the activation of tyrosine kinases within the cell.

Allergy

allergiesallergic reactionallergic
FcεRI is the Fc receptor on granulocytes, that is involved in allergic reactions and defense against parasitic infections.
Secreted IgE circulates in the blood and binds to an IgE-specific receptor (a kind of Fc receptor called FcεRI) on the surface of other kinds of immune cells called mast cells and basophils, which are both involved in the acute inflammatory response.

Fc receptor-like molecule

* Fc receptor-like molecule
Fc receptor-like molecules (FCRLs) are a class of proteins that resemble Fc receptors.

Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity

antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicityADCCantibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity
Their activity stimulates phagocytic or cytotoxic cells to destroy microbes, or infected cells by antibody-mediated phagocytosis or antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity.
After IgE coat these parasites, the Fc receptor (FcɛRI) of an eosinophil will then recognize IgE.

Immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif

ITAMITAMsImmunoreceptor tyrosine activation motif
The receptors generate signals within their cells through an important activation motif known as an Immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM).
Hence, they are found in the tails of important cell signaling molecules such as the CD3 and ζ-chains of the T cell receptor complex, the CD79-alpha and -beta chains of the B cell receptor complex, and certain Fc receptors.

Immunoglobulin G

IgGIgG1IgG4
For example, those that bind the most common class of antibody, IgG, are called Fc-gamma receptors (FcγR), those that bind IgA are called Fc-alpha receptors (FcαR) and those that bind IgE are called Fc-epsilon receptors (FcεR).
Nevertheless, it remains true that both human and mouse antibodies have different abilities to fix complement and to bind to Fc receptors.

Follicular dendritic cells

follicular dendritic cellFDCFDCs
An Fc receptor is a protein found on the surface of certain cells – including, among others, B lymphocytes, follicular dendritic cells, natural killer cells, macrophages, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, human platelets, and mast cells – that contribute to the protective functions of the immune system.

Basophil

basophilsbasophil granulocytebasophilic
An Fc receptor is a protein found on the surface of certain cells – including, among others, B lymphocytes, follicular dendritic cells, natural killer cells, macrophages, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, human platelets, and mast cells – that contribute to the protective functions of the immune system.

Immune system

immuneimmune responseimmune function
An Fc receptor is a protein found on the surface of certain cells – including, among others, B lymphocytes, follicular dendritic cells, natural killer cells, macrophages, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, human platelets, and mast cells – that contribute to the protective functions of the immune system.

Cytotoxicity

cytotoxiccytotoxincytotoxins
Their activity stimulates phagocytic or cytotoxic cells to destroy microbes, or infected cells by antibody-mediated phagocytosis or antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity.

Virus

virusesviralvirion
Some viruses such as flaviviruses use Fc receptors to help them infect cells, by a mechanism known as antibody-dependent enhancement of infection.

Flavivirus

flavivirusesflaviviralFlavivirus Infections
Some viruses such as flaviviruses use Fc receptors to help them infect cells, by a mechanism known as antibody-dependent enhancement of infection.