Fecal microbiota transplant

Fecal bacteriotherapyfecal transplantfecal microbiota transplantationFecal TransplantsFecal microbiotafecal transplantationFMTsHuman probiotic infusionmicrobiome therapeuticsmicrobiome transplant
Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT), also known as a stool transplant, is the process of transplantation of fecal bacteria from a healthy individual into a recipient.wikipedia
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Clostridioides difficile infection

Clostridium difficileClostridium difficile'' colitisClostridium difficile'' infection
The effectiveness of FMT has been seen in clinical trials for the treatment of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI), whose effects can range from diarrhea to pseudomembranous colitis.
Some tentative evidence indicates fecal microbiota transplantation and probiotics may decrease the risk of recurrence.

Enema

enemasclysterproctoclysis
FMT involves restoration of the colonic microflora by introducing healthy bacterial flora through infusion of stool, e.g. via colonoscopy, enema, orogastric tube, or by mouth in the form of a capsule containing freeze-dried material, obtained from a healthy donor.
* Introducing healthy bacterial flora through infusion of stool, known as a fecal microbiota transplant, was first performed in 1958 employing retention enemas.

Human gastrointestinal microbiota

gut floragut microbiotaintestinal flora
FMT involves restoration of the colonic microflora by introducing healthy bacterial flora through infusion of stool, e.g. via colonoscopy, enema, orogastric tube, or by mouth in the form of a capsule containing freeze-dried material, obtained from a healthy donor.
(see Fecal transplant).

Inflammatory bowel disease

inflammatory bowel diseasesIBDindeterminate colitis
They have included bacterial blood infections, fever, exacerbation of inflammatory bowel disease in people who also had that condition, and mild GI distress which generally resolved soon after the procedure including flatulence, diarrhea, irregular bowel movements, abdominal distension/bloating, abdominal pain/tenderness, constipation, cramping, and nausea.
Fecal microbiota transplant is a relatively new treatment option for IBD which has attracted attention since 2010.

Irritable bowel syndrome

IBSSplenic flexure syndromeSplenic-flexure syndrome
FMT has been used experimentally to treat other gastrointestinal diseases, including colitis, constipation, irritable bowel syndrome, and neurological conditions such as multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's. This screening involves medical history questionnaires, screening for various chronic medical diseases (e.g. irritable bowel diseases, Crohn's disease, gastrointestinal cancer, etc.), and laboratory testing for pathogenic gastrointestinal infections (e.g. CMV, ''C.
A fecal transplant does not appear useful as of 2019.

Ulcerative colitis

colitis ulcerosaColitisinflammatory colitis
In May 1988, Australian Professor Thomas Borody treated the first ulcerative colitis patient using fecal microbiota transplantation, which led to longstanding symptom resolution.

Parkinson's disease

ParkinsonParkinson’s diseaseParkinson disease
FMT has been used experimentally to treat other gastrointestinal diseases, including colitis, constipation, irritable bowel syndrome, and neurological conditions such as multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's.
The role of the gut–brain axis and the gut flora in Parkinsons became a topic of study in the 2010s, starting with work in germ-free transgenic mice, in which fecal transplants from people with PD had worse outcomes.

Thomas Borody

For over two decades, FMT has been provided as a treatment option at the Centre for Digestive Diseases in Five Dock, by Thomas Borody, the modern day proponent of FMT.
Borody has also made significant contributions to innovative treatment for pseudomembranous colitis and ulcerative colitis called fecal bacteriotherapy, which involves repopulating the gut with beneficial bacteria using fecal material from healthy individuals.

OpenBiome

In 2012, a team of researchers from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology founded OpenBiome, the first public stool bank in the United States
OpenBiome distributes material to hospitals and clinics to support the treatment of C. difficile, the most common pathogen causing hospital-acquired infection in the U.S. OpenBiome provides frozen preparations of screened and filtered human stool for use in fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) therapies.

Josiah Zayner

* Josiah Zayner, a biohacker who attempted a full fecal microbiota transplant on himself in 2016
In February 2016, Zayner attempted a full body microbiome transplant on himself, including a fecal transplant, to experiment with microbiome engineering and to see if he could treat his gastrointestinal and other health issues.

Coprophagia

coprophagouscoprophagycoprophagic
Elephants, hippos, koalas, and pandas are born with sterile intestines, and to digest vegetation need bacteria which they obtain by eating their mothers' feces, a practice termed coprophagia.

Freeze-drying

freeze-driedfreeze dryingfreeze dried
FMT involves restoration of the colonic microflora by introducing healthy bacterial flora through infusion of stool, e.g. via colonoscopy, enema, orogastric tube, or by mouth in the form of a capsule containing freeze-dried material, obtained from a healthy donor.

Diarrhea

diarrhoeadiarrheal diseaseschronic diarrhea
The effectiveness of FMT has been seen in clinical trials for the treatment of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI), whose effects can range from diarrhea to pseudomembranous colitis.

Vancomycin

Red man syndromeRed man syndrome (Drug eruption)Vancocin
difficile'' in adults, and more effective than vancomycin alone.

Colitis

pseudomembranous colitisinfectious colitisbacterial colitis
The effectiveness of FMT has been seen in clinical trials for the treatment of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI), whose effects can range from diarrhea to pseudomembranous colitis. FMT has been used experimentally to treat other gastrointestinal diseases, including colitis, constipation, irritable bowel syndrome, and neurological conditions such as multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's.

Constipation

constipatedobstipationchronic constipation
FMT has been used experimentally to treat other gastrointestinal diseases, including colitis, constipation, irritable bowel syndrome, and neurological conditions such as multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's.

Multiple sclerosis

MSmultiple sclerosis (MS)disseminated sclerosis
FMT has been used experimentally to treat other gastrointestinal diseases, including colitis, constipation, irritable bowel syndrome, and neurological conditions such as multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's.

United Kingdom

BritishUKBritain
In the United Kingdom, FMT regulation is under the remit of the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency.

Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency

MHRAMedicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA)Medicines Control Agency
In the United Kingdom, FMT regulation is under the remit of the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency.

Antimicrobial resistance

antibiotic resistanceresistanceresistant
A 2009 study found that fecal microbiota transplant was an effective and simple procedure that was more cost-effective than continued antibiotic administration and reduced the incidence of antibiotic resistance.

Medicare (United States)

MedicareMedicare (US)Medicare Catastrophic Coverage Act
Once considered to be "last resort therapy" by some medical professionals due to its unusual nature and invasiveness compared with antibiotics, perceived potential risk of infection transmission, and lack of Medicare coverage for donor stool, position statements by specialists in infectious diseases and other societies have been moving toward acceptance of FMT as standard therapy for relapsing CDI and also Medicare coverage in the United States.

Endoscopy

endoscopicendoscopesendoscope
It has been recommended that endoscopic FMT be elevated to first-line treatment for people with deterioration and severe relapsing ''C.

Therapy

therapeutictherapisttreatment
It has been recommended that endoscopic FMT be elevated to first-line treatment for people with deterioration and severe relapsing ''C.

Bacteremia

bacteraemiatoxemiatoxaemia
They have included bacterial blood infections, fever, exacerbation of inflammatory bowel disease in people who also had that condition, and mild GI distress which generally resolved soon after the procedure including flatulence, diarrhea, irregular bowel movements, abdominal distension/bloating, abdominal pain/tenderness, constipation, cramping, and nausea.

Gastrointestinal cancer

gastrointestinalGastrointestinal tractgastrointestinal tumors
This screening involves medical history questionnaires, screening for various chronic medical diseases (e.g. irritable bowel diseases, Crohn's disease, gastrointestinal cancer, etc.), and laboratory testing for pathogenic gastrointestinal infections (e.g. CMV, ''C.