Federal judiciary of the United States

federal courtfederal courtsUnited States federal courtUnited States federal courtsU.S. federal courtfederal judiciaryfederalU.S. federal courtsfederal court systemUnited States federal court system
The federal judiciary of the United States is one of the three branches of the federal government of the United States organized under the United States Constitution and laws of the federal government.wikipedia
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Constitution of the United States

United States ConstitutionU.S. ConstitutionConstitution
The federal judiciary of the United States is one of the three branches of the federal government of the United States organized under the United States Constitution and laws of the federal government.
Its first three articles embody the doctrine of the separation of powers, whereby the federal government is divided into three branches: the legislative, consisting of the bicameral Congress (Article One); the executive, consisting of the president (Article Two); and the judicial, consisting of the Supreme Court and other federal courts (Article Three).

Federal government of the United States

United States governmentU.S. governmentfederal government
The federal judiciary of the United States is one of the three branches of the federal government of the United States organized under the United States Constitution and laws of the federal government.
The federal government is composed of three distinct branches: legislative, executive and judicial, whose powers are vested by the U.S. Constitution in the Congress, the president and the federal courts, respectively.

Law of the United States

United States federal lawUnited States lawAmerican lawyer
The federal judiciary of the United States is one of the three branches of the federal government of the United States organized under the United States Constitution and laws of the federal government.
The Constitution sets out the boundaries of federal law, which consists of Acts of Congress, treaties ratified by the Senate, regulations promulgated by the executive branch, and case law originating from the federal judiciary.

United States district court

U.S. District Courtfederal district courtdistrict court
The United States district courts (one in each of the 94 federal judicial districts, and three territorial courts) are general federal trial courts, although in certain cases Congress has diverted original jurisdiction to specialized courts, such as the Court of International Trade, the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court, the Alien Terrorist Removal Court, or to Article I or Article IV tribunals.
The United States district courts are the general trial courts of the United States federal court system.

United States federal judicial district

federal judicial districtdistrictsfederal judicial districts
The United States district courts (one in each of the 94 federal judicial districts, and three territorial courts) are general federal trial courts, although in certain cases Congress has diverted original jurisdiction to specialized courts, such as the Court of International Trade, the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court, the Alien Terrorist Removal Court, or to Article I or Article IV tribunals.
For purposes of the federal judicial system, Congress has divided the United States into judicial districts.

United States Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court

Foreign Intelligence Surveillance CourtFISA CourtFISC
The United States district courts (one in each of the 94 federal judicial districts, and three territorial courts) are general federal trial courts, although in certain cases Congress has diverted original jurisdiction to specialized courts, such as the Court of International Trade, the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court, the Alien Terrorist Removal Court, or to Article I or Article IV tribunals.
The United States Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISC, also called the FISA Court) is a U.S. federal court established and authorized under the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 (FISA) to oversee requests for surveillance warrants against foreign spies inside the United States by federal law enforcement and intelligence agencies.

United States courts of appeals

United States Court of AppealsU.S. Court of AppealsCourt of Appeals
The United States courts of appeals are the intermediate federal appellate courts.
The United States courts of appeals or circuit courts are the intermediate appellate courts of the United States federal court system.

United States Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court of Review

Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court of ReviewUnited States Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court of Review (FISCR)Court of Review
In some cases, Congress has diverted appellate jurisdiction to specialized courts, such as the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court of Review.
The United States Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court of Review (FISCR) is a U.S. federal court whose sole purpose is to review denials of applications for electronic surveillance warrants (called FISA warrants) by the United States Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (or FISC).

Supreme Court of the United States

United States Supreme CourtU.S. Supreme CourtSupreme Court
The Supreme Court of the United States is the court of last resort.
The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) is the highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States.

Article Three of the United States Constitution

Article IIIU.S. Const. art. IIIArticle III of the United States Constitution
Article III of the Constitution requires the establishment of a Supreme Court and permits the Congress to create other federal courts, and place limitations on their jurisdiction.
The Supreme Court is the only federal court that is explicitly established by the Constitution.

State court (United States)

state courtstate courtsstate
It generally hears appeals from the courts of appeals and sometimes state courts, operating under discretionary review, which means that the Supreme Court can choose which cases to hear, by granting writs of certiorari.
State courts handle the vast majority of civil and criminal cases in the United States; the much smaller in case load and personnel, United States federal courts, handle different types of cases.

Procedures of the Supreme Court of the United States

certioraridiscretionarydiscretionary basis
It generally hears appeals from the courts of appeals and sometimes state courts, operating under discretionary review, which means that the Supreme Court can choose which cases to hear, by granting writs of certiorari.
The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States.

United States Court of Federal Claims

U.S. Court of ClaimsU.S. Court of Federal ClaimsCourt of Federal Claims
The Article I courts with original jurisdiction over specific subject matter include the bankruptcy courts (for each district court), the immigration courts, the Court of Federal Claims, and the Tax Court.
The United States Court of Federal Claims (in case citations, Fed. Cl. or C.F.C.) is a United States federal court that hears monetary claims against the U.S. government.

United States magistrate judge

Magistrate JudgeU.S. Magistrate JudgeUnited States Magistrate
Judges who staff them normally serve terms of fixed duration, as do magistrate judges who assist Article III judges.
In United States federal courts, magistrate judges are judges appointed to assist district court judges in the performance of their duties.

Judicial Conference of the United States

Conference of Senior Circuit JudgesUnited States Judicial ConferenceJudicial Conference
Responding to a backlog of cases in the federal courts, in 1922 Congress enacted a new form of court administration that advanced the institutionalization of an independent judiciary.

Jurisdiction

jurisdictionsjurisdictionallegal jurisdiction
Article III of the Constitution requires the establishment of a Supreme Court and permits the Congress to create other federal courts, and place limitations on their jurisdiction.
For example, in United States federal courts, the United States district courts have original jurisdiction over a number of different matters (as mentioned above), and the United States court of appeals have appellate jurisdiction over matters appealed from the district courts.

Federal Judicial Center

The Federal Judicial Center is the education and research agency of the United States federal courts.

Judicial Panel on Multidistrict Litigation

United States Judicial Panel on Multidistrict LitigationJudicial Panel on Multi-District Litigationmultidistrict litigation
The United States Judicial Panel on Multidistrict Litigation (J.P.M.L. or the Panel) is a special body within the United States federal court system which manages multidistrict litigation.

Administrative Office of the United States Courts

Administrative Office of the U.S. CourtsAdministrative OfficeAdministrative Office of the Courts
The Administrative Office of the United States Courts (AO) is the administrative agency of the United States federal court system.

United States Marshals Service

U.S. MarshalUnited States MarshalU.S. Marshals
USMS is an agency of the United States executive branch reporting to the United States Attorney General, but serves as the enforcement arm of the United States federal courts to ensure the effective operation of the judiciary and integrity of the Constitution.

Judicial council (United States)

Judicial CouncilJudicial councils
Judicial councils are panels of the United States federal courts that are charged with making "necessary and appropriate orders for the effective and expeditious administration of justice" within their circuits.

Erie doctrine

Erie'' doctrineapplying state lawErie guess
The Erie doctrine requires federal courts to apply substantive state law to claims arising from state law (which may be heard in federal courts under supplemental or diversity jurisdiction).
The Erie doctrine is a fundamental legal doctrine of civil procedure in the United States which mandates that a federal court sitting in diversity jurisdiction (or in general, when hearing state law claims in contexts like supplemental jurisdiction or adversarial proceedings in bankruptcy) must apply state substantive law to resolve claims under state law.

Court of Appeals in Cases of Capture

courts for appeals in all cases of captures
The Court of Appeals in Cases of Capture was the first United States Court established by the United States.
The former Court of Appeals in Cases of Capture, established by resolution of the Congress of the Confederation on January 15, 1780, was the first federal court in the United States of America.

United States territorial court

territorial courtsterritorial courtUnited States territorial courts
Article IV courts include the High Court of American Samoa and territorial courts such as the District Court for the Northern Mariana Islands, District Court of Guam, and District Court of the Virgin Islands.
The American legal system includes both state courts and federal courts.

Rules Enabling Act

The creation and revision of rules pursuant to the Rules Enabling Act is usually carried out by the Committee on Rules of Practice and Procedure (known as the "Standing Committee") and its advisory committees, which are part of the Judicial Conference of the United States, the policymaking body of the United States federal courts.