Federal judiciary of the United States

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One of the three branches of the federal government of the United States organized under the United States Constitution and laws of the federal government.

- Federal judiciary of the United States
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Supreme Court of the United States

The Court lacked its own building until 1935; from 1791 to 1801, it met in Philadelphia's City Hall.
The Royal Exchange, New York City, the first meeting place of the Supreme Court
Chief Justice Marshall (1801–1835)
The U.S. Supreme Court Building, current home of the Supreme Court, which opened in 1935.
The Hughes Court in 1937, photographed by Erich Salomon. Members include Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes (center), Louis Brandeis, Benjamin N. Cardozo, Harlan Stone, Owen Roberts, and the "Four Horsemen" Pierce Butler, James Clark McReynolds, George Sutherland, and Willis Van Devanter, who opposed New Deal policies.
Justices of the Supreme Court with President George W. Bush (center-right) in October 2005. The justices (left to right) are: Ruth Bader Ginsburg, David Souter, Antonin Scalia, John Paul Stevens, John Roberts, Sandra Day O'Connor, Anthony Kennedy, Clarence Thomas, and Stephen Breyer
John Roberts giving testimony before the Senate Judiciary Committee during the 2005 hearings on his nomination to be chief justice
Ruth Bader Ginsburg giving testimony before the Senate Judiciary Committee during the 1993 hearings on her nomination to be an associate justice
The interior of the United States Supreme Court
The first four female justices: O'Connor, Sotomayor, Ginsburg, and Kagan.
The current Roberts Court justices (since October 2020): Front row (left to right): Samuel Alito, Clarence Thomas, Chief Justice John Roberts, Stephen Breyer, and Sonia Sotomayor. Back row (left to right): Brett Kavanaugh, Elena Kagan, Neil Gorsuch, and Amy Coney Barrett.
Percentage of cases decided unanimously and by a one-vote margin from 1971 to 2016
The present U.S. Supreme Court building as viewed from the front
From the 1860s until the 1930s, the court sat in the Old Senate Chamber of the U.S. Capitol.
Seth P. Waxman at oral argument presents his case and answers questions from the justices.
Inscription on the wall of the Supreme Court Building from Marbury v. Madison, in which Chief Justice John Marshall outlined the concept of judicial review

The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) is the highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States.

United States Court of Federal Claims on Madison Place in Washington, D.C.

United States Court of Federal Claims

The United States Court of Federal Claims (in case citations, '''Fed.

The United States Court of Federal Claims (in case citations, '''Fed.

United States Court of Federal Claims on Madison Place in Washington, D.C.

Cl. or C.F.C.''') is a United States federal court that hears monetary claims against the U.S. government.

Secretary of State James Madison, who won Marbury v. Madison, but lost judicial review

Article Three of the United States Constitution

Article Three of the United States Constitution establishes the judicial branch of the federal government.

Article Three of the United States Constitution establishes the judicial branch of the federal government.

Secretary of State James Madison, who won Marbury v. Madison, but lost judicial review
A nineteenth-century painting of a jury
Iva Toguri, known as Tokyo Rose, and Tomoya Kawakita were two Japanese Americans who were tried for treason after World War II.

The Supreme Court is the only federal court that is explicitly established by the Constitution.

U.S. Court of Appeals and District Court map

United States federal judicial district

U.S. Court of Appeals and District Court map

For purposes of the federal judicial system, Congress has divided the United States into judicial districts.

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United States magistrate judge

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In United States federal courts, magistrate judges are judges appointed to assist district court judges in the performance of their duties.

Chief Justice Taft led a public campaign for federal judicial reform

Judicial Conference of the United States

Created by the United States Congress in 1922 with the principal objective of framing policy guidelines for administration of judicial courts in the United States.

Created by the United States Congress in 1922 with the principal objective of framing policy guidelines for administration of judicial courts in the United States.

Chief Justice Taft led a public campaign for federal judicial reform

Responding to a backlog of cases in the federal courts, in 1922 Congress enacted a new form of court administration that advanced the institutionalization of an independent judiciary.

United States Marshals Service

Federal law enforcement agency in the United States.

Federal law enforcement agency in the United States.

Deputy U.S. Marshal Morgan Earp in an 1881 photograph
U.S. marshals accompanying James Meredith to class
Marshals escort six year old Ruby Bridges from school.
Bat Masterson (standing second from right), Wyatt Earp (sitting second from left), and other deputy marshals during the Wild West era
Equipment used by the USMS
Marshals being briefed for Operation FALCON III, 2008
Deputy U.S. Marshals and Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department officers during a "knock-and-announce" procedure
United States Marshals escorting a prisoner in court
Marshals arresting a suspect
Deputy United States Marshal guarding prisoners
A U.S. Marshal on a "Con Air" flight
Wild Bill Hickok
Bass Reeves
Wyatt Earp
Frank Eaton

The USMS is a bureau within the U.S. Department of Justice, operating under the direction of the Attorney General, but serves as the enforcement arm of the United States federal courts to ensure the effective operation of the judiciary and integrity of the Constitution.

Opening of the 112th Congress in the House of Representatives chamber, January 5, 2011

Article One of the United States Constitution

Article One of the United States Constitution establishes the legislative branch of the federal government, the United States Congress.

Article One of the United States Constitution establishes the legislative branch of the federal government, the United States Congress.

Opening of the 112th Congress in the House of Representatives chamber, January 5, 2011
Gilded Age monopolies could no longer control the U.S. Senate (left) by corrupting state legislatures (right).
The impeachment trial of President Clinton in 1999, with Chief Justice William Rehnquist presiding
Newly naturalized citizen Albert Einstein received his certificate of American citizenship from Judge Phillip Forman.
Congress's "power of the purse" authorizes taxing citizens, spending money, issuing notes and minting coins.
Chief Justice John Marshall established a broad interpretation of the Commerce Clause.
Congress authorizes defense spending such as the purchase of the USS Bon Homme Richard.
U.S. brig Perry confronting the slave ship Martha off Ambriz on June 6, 1850

(Taxes are apportioned by state population) It includes several enumerated powers, including the power to lay and collect "taxes, duties, imposts, and excises" (provided duties, imposts, and excises are uniform throughout the US), "to provide for the common defense and general welfare of the United States," the power to regulate interstate and international commerce, the power to set naturalization laws, the power to coin and regulate money, the power to borrow money on the credit of the United States, the power to establish post offices and post roads, the power to establish federal courts inferior to the Supreme Court, the power to raise and support an army and a navy, the power to call forth the militia "to execute the laws of the Union, suppress insurrections, and repel invasions" and to provide for the militia's "organizing, arming, disciplining...and governing" and granting Congress the power to declare war.

Iustitia ("Lady Justice") is a symbolic personification of the coercive power of a tribunal: a sword representing state authority, scales representing an objective standard and a blindfold indicating that justice should be impartial.

Certiorari

Court process to seek judicial review of a decision of a lower court or government agency.

Court process to seek judicial review of a decision of a lower court or government agency.

Iustitia ("Lady Justice") is a symbolic personification of the coercive power of a tribunal: a sword representing state authority, scales representing an objective standard and a blindfold indicating that justice should be impartial.

As Associate Justice James Wilson (1742–1798), the person primarily responsible for the drafting of Article Three of the United States Constitution, which describes the judicial branch of the US federal government, explains:

The first page of the Judiciary Act of 1789

Judiciary Act of 1789

The Judiciary Act of 1789 (ch.

The Judiciary Act of 1789 (ch.

The first page of the Judiciary Act of 1789
John Jay Chief Justice Commissioned: Sept. 26, 1789<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.fjc.gov/history/judges/jay-john|title=History of the Federal Judiciary, Judges, Jay, John|website=fjc.gov}}</ref>
John Rutledge Associate Justice Commissioned: Sept. 26, 1789<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.fjc.gov/history/judges/rutledge-john|title=History of the Federal Judiciary, Judges, Rutledge, John|website=fjc.gov}}</ref>
William Cushing Associate Justice Commissioned: Sept. 27, 1789<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.fjc.gov/history/judges/cushing-william|title=History of the Federal Judiciary, Judges, Cushing, William|website=fjc.gov}}</ref>
James Wilson Associate Justice Commissioned: Sept. 29, 1789<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.fjc.gov/history/judges/wilson-james|title=History of the Federal Judiciary, Judges, Wilson, James|website=fjc.gov}}</ref>
John Blair Associate Justice Commissioned: Sept. 30, 1789<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.fjc.gov/history/judges/blair-john-jr|title=History of the Federal Judiciary, Judges, Blair, John, Jr.|website=fjc.gov}}</ref>
James Iredell Associate Justice Commissioned: Feb. 10, 1790<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.fjc.gov/history/judges/iredell-james|title=History of the Federal Judiciary, Judges, Iredell, James|website=fjc.gov}}</ref>

It established the federal judiciary of the United States.