A report on Federalist Party

A portrait of Alexander Hamilton by John Trumbull, 1806
The Apotheosis of Washington as seen looking up from the Capitol rotunda in Washington, D.C.
Gilbert Stuart, John Adams, c. 1800-1815
President Thomas Jefferson
President James Madison

Traditionalist conservative party that was the first political party in the United States.

- Federalist Party

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Democratic-Republican Party

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American political party founded by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison in the early 1790s that championed republicanism, agrarianism, political equality, and expansionism.

American political party founded by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison in the early 1790s that championed republicanism, agrarianism, political equality, and expansionism.

Thomas Jefferson defeated John Adams in the 1800 presidential election, thereby becoming the first Democratic-Republican president.
The Louisiana Purchase in 1803 totaled 827,987 sqmi, doubling the size of the United States.
Albert Gallatin served as Secretary of the Treasury under Presidents Jefferson and Madison.
James Monroe, the third Democratic-Republican president
Four Democratic-Republicans sought the presidency in 1824: Andrew Jackson, John Quincy Adams, William H. Crawford, and Henry Clay.
John Quincy Adams won the 1824 presidential election as a Democratic-Republican after leaving the Federalist Party earlier in his career.
Presidential election results from 1796 to 1824. Darker shades of green indicate that the state generally supported the Democratic-Republicans, and darker shades of brown indicate that the state generally supported the Federalists.
John Randolph of Roanoke was a prominent member of a group of Southern plantation owners known as the Old Republicans.
Andrew Jackson led a faction of Democratic-Republicans that ultimately coalesced into the Democratic Party.

The party became increasingly dominant after the 1800 elections as the opposing Federalist Party collapsed.

Portrait by Rembrandt Peale, 1800

Thomas Jefferson

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American statesman, diplomat, lawyer, architect, philosopher, and Founding Father who served as the third president of the United States from 1801 to 1809.

American statesman, diplomat, lawyer, architect, philosopher, and Founding Father who served as the third president of the United States from 1801 to 1809.

Portrait by Rembrandt Peale, 1800
Thomas Jefferson's Coat of Arms
Wren Building, College of William & Mary where Jefferson studied
House of Burgesses in Williamsburg, Virginia, where Jefferson served 1769–1775
Jefferson's home Monticello in Virginia
Jefferson's daughter Martha
U.S. Declaration of Independence – 1823 facsimile of the engrossed copy
Governor's Palace, Governor Jefferson's residence in Williamsburg
Independence Hall Assembly Room where Jefferson served in Congress
Portrait of Thomas Jefferson while in London in 1786 at 44 by Mather Brown
Thomas Jefferson in 1791 at 48 by Charles Willson Peale
1796 election results
Jefferson in 1799 at 57, painted by Charles Peale Polk
1800 election results
President Thomas Jefferson Peale 1805 Reproduction
Barbary Coast of North Africa 1806. Left is Morocco at Gibraltar, center is Tunis, and right is Tripoli.
The 1803 Louisiana Purchase totaled 827,987 sqmi, doubling the size of the United States.
Corps of Discovery, October 1805 (by Charles Marion Russell, 1905)
map
Black Hoof, leader of the Shawnee, accepted Jefferson's Indian assimilation policies.
1804 Electoral College vote
1802 portrait of Aaron Burr by John Vanderlyn
HMS Leopard (right) firing upon USS Chesapeake
A political cartoon showing merchants dodging the "Ograbme", which is "Embargo" spelled backwards (1807)
Portrait of Jefferson by Gilbert Stuart, 1821.
The University of Virginia, Jefferson's "Academical Village"
In 1804, Abigail Adams attempted to reconcile Jefferson and Adams.
Lafayette in 1824, portrait by Ary Scheffer, hanging in U.S. House of Representatives
Jefferson's gravesite
Thomas Jefferson at age 78. Portrait by Thomas Sully hanging at West Point, commissioned by Faculty and Cadets, 1821.
The Jefferson Bible featuring only the words of Jesus from the evangelists, in parallel Greek, Latin, French and English
Jefferson by Gilbert Stuart in 1805
Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton, national bank proponent and Jefferson's adversary
Jefferson's 1795 Farm Book, page 30, lists 163 slaves at Monticello.
Jefferson depicted as a rooster, and Hemings as a hen
Virginia State Capitol, designed by Jefferson (wings added later)
Mount Rushmore National Memorial (left to right): George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt, and Abraham Lincoln
Jefferson Memorial, Washington, D.C.
Thomas Jefferson Memorial Statue, by Rudulph Evans (1947)
Jefferson on the $2 bill
alt=Commemorative stone erected at Thomas Jefferson's birthplace in Shadwell, Virginia, on April 13, 1929.|Jefferson's Birthplace
Albert Gallatin Jefferson's Treasury economic architect Stuart 1803

Jefferson and James Madison organized the Democratic-Republican Party to oppose the Federalist Party during the formation of the First Party System.

John Adams by Gilbert Stuart c. undefined 1800–1815

John Adams

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American statesman, attorney, diplomat, writer, and Founding Father who served as the second president of the United States from 1797 to 1801.

American statesman, attorney, diplomat, writer, and Founding Father who served as the second president of the United States from 1797 to 1801.

John Adams by Gilbert Stuart c. undefined 1800–1815
Adams's birthplace now in Quincy, Massachusetts
Boston Massacre of 1770 by Alonzo Chappel
John Trumbull's Declaration of Independence depicts the Committee of Five presenting its draft to Congress. Adams is depicted in the center with his hand on his hip.
The Assembly Room in Philadelphia's Independence Hall, where the Second Continental Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence
Adams frequently clashed with Benjamin Franklin over how to manage French relations.
Treaty of Paris by Benjamin West (Adams in front).
Adams – 1785 Mather Brown Portrait
Portrait of Adams by John Trumbull, 1793
Portrait of George Washington by Gilbert Stuart, 1795. Washington rarely consulted Vice President Adams, who often felt marginalized and overshadowed by Washington's prestige.
1796 presidential election results
President's House, Philadelphia. Adams occupied this Philadelphia mansion from March 1797 to May 1800.
A political cartoon depicts the XYZ Affair – America is a female being plundered by Frenchmen. (1798)
Thomas Jefferson, Adams's vice president, attempted to undermine many of his actions as president and eventually defeated him for reelection.
Alexander Hamilton's desire for high military rank and his push for war with France put him into conflict with Adams.
1800 presidential election results
John Marshall, 4th Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court and one of Adams's few dependable allies
John Adams, c. 1816, by Samuel Morse (Brooklyn Museum)
Tombs of John and Abigail Adams (far) and John Quincy and Louisa Adams (near), in family crypt at United First Parish Church
Peacefield - John Adams' Home
Thoughts on Government (1776)
John Adams by Gilbert Stuart (1823). This portrait was the last made of Adams, done at the request of John Quincy.

He was the only president elected under the banner of the Federalist Party.

Portrait by John Trumbull, 1806

Alexander Hamilton

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American revolutionary, statesman and Founding Father of the United States.

American revolutionary, statesman and Founding Father of the United States.

Portrait by John Trumbull, 1806
Coat of arms of the Hamiltons of Grange in Ayrshire, Scotland.
The Hamilton House, Charlestown, Nevis. The current structure was rebuilt from the ruins of the house where it was thought that Alexander Hamilton was born and lived as a young child.
Hamilton in his youth
Kings College c. 1756, adjacent to the New York Commons where City Hall Park is today
Alexander Hamilton in the Uniform of the New York Artillery, by Alonzo Chappel (1828–1887)
Aides-de-camp's office inside Washington's Headquarters at Valley Forge. General Washington's staff officers worked in this room, writing and copying the letters and orders of the Continental Army.
The Storming of Redoubt #10, an 1840 painting by Eugene Lami
Detail of Surrender of Lord Cornwallis by John Trumbull, showing Colonels Alexander Hamilton, John Laurens, and Walter Stewart
Miniature of Hamilton attributed to Charles Shirreff, c. 1790
A Turban Head eagle, one of the first gold coins minted under the Coinage Act of 1792
A painting of a Revenue Marine cutter, which may be of either the Massachusetts (1791), or its replacement, the Massachusetts II
Portrait of Alexander Hamilton by Walter Robertson. Circa 1794
A statue of Hamilton by Franklin Simmons, overlooking the Great Falls of the Passaic River in Paterson, New Jersey, where Hamilton envisioned using the falls to power new factories
The Jay Treaty
Hamilton by John Trumbull, 1792
Aaron Burr, Hamilton and Philip Schuyler strolling on Wall Street, New York, 1790
Alexander Hamilton by William J. Weaver, ca. 1794-1806
A statue of Hamilton in the United States Capitol rotunda
Detail of 1802 portrait by Ezra Ames, painted after death of Hamilton's eldest son Philip
Hamilton's tomb in Trinity Church's first burial grounds at Wall Street and Broadway in Lower Manhattan
Drawing (c. 1902) of the Burr–Hamilton duel, from a painting by J. Mund
This July 25, 1804 article reflected extreme lamentation over Hamilton's death, and described the plan for his funeral procession and other tributes, including a 30-day wearing of a commemorative black armband ("crape") by members of the Society of the Cincinnati of Pennsylvania of which Hamilton had been President General.
Elizabeth Schuyler, portrait by Ralph Earl
Distinctive unit insignia of the United States Army 1st Battalion, 5th Field Artillery Regiment (i.e. Alexander Hamilton Battery). The crest at center is that of Clan Hamilton, with the addition of 13 gold acorns representing the original 13 states.
USCGC Hamilton (WMSL 753) seal. The two colors on the coat of arms represent the aspects of Alexander Hamilton's life: military and civilian. The white demarcation line is a virtual diagram of the trenches converging on the British redoubt #10 at Yorktown. Surmounting the crossed bayonets symbolizing Hamilton's taking of the redoubt is a Doric column which represents Hamilton's service as a statesman. The crest shows an ermine cinquefoil, which is the principal charge on the Hamilton family coat of arms and is worn by a unicorn, taken from the hand-carved powder horn Hamilton is believed to have owned. The motto, "Vigilant Sentinel," is derived from a quote in Federalist No. 12: "A few armed vessels, judiciously stationed at the entrance of our ports, might at a small expense be made useful sentinels of the law."
A starboard view of the nuclear-powered strategic missile submarine USS Alexander Hamilton (SSBN-617) underway.
Alexander Hamilton on the Series 2004A U.S. $10 bill
$2
$5
$10
$20
$50
$1,000
Hamilton stamp, 1870 issue
The Hamilton Grange National Memorial in St. Nicholas Park
A statue of Hamilton outside Hamilton Hall, overlooking Hamilton Lawn at Columbia University in New York City
The Hamilton statue in Central Park
Image of the statue of Alexander Hamilton created by William Ordway Partridge, commissioned for the Hamilton Club of Brooklyn. The statue later stood in front of Hamilton Grange when the house was located at 287 Convent Ave.
A view of the Alexander Hamilton Bridge from the south
Lin-Manuel Miranda performs the title role in the 2015 musical Hamilton.
USCGC Hamilton (WMSL 753) seal. The two colors on the coat of arms represent the aspects of Alexander Hamilton's life: military and civilian. The white demarcation line is a virtual diagram of the trenches converging on the British redoubt #10 at Yorktown. Surmounting the crossed bayonets symbolizing Hamilton's taking of the redoubt is a Doric column which represents Hamilton's service as a statesman. The crest shows an ermine cinquefoil, which is the principal charge on the Hamilton family coat of arms and is worn by a unicorn, taken from the hand-carved powder horn Hamilton is believed to have owned. The motto, "Vigilant Sentinel," is derived from a quote in Federalist No. 12: "A few armed vessels, judiciously stationed at the entrance of our ports, might at a small expense be made useful sentinels of the law."

He was an influential interpreter and promoter of the U.S. Constitution, and was the founder of the Federalist Party, the nation's financial system, the United States Coast Guard, and the New York Post newspaper.

1800 United States presidential election

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The fourth quadrennial presidential election.

The fourth quadrennial presidential election.

Results by county explicitly indicating the percentage of the winning candidate in each county. Shades of blue are for Jefferson (Democratic-Republican) and shades of yellow are for Adams (Federalist).
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Aaron Burr tied Jefferson in the Electoral College vote
President
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Former

In what is sometimes called the "Revolution of 1800", Vice President Thomas Jefferson of the Democratic-Republican Party defeated incumbent President John Adams of the Federalist Party.

Portrait by Henry Inman, 1832

John Marshall

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American politician and lawyer who served as the fourth Chief Justice of the United States from 1801 until his death in 1835.

American politician and lawyer who served as the fourth Chief Justice of the United States from 1801 until his death in 1835.

Portrait by Henry Inman, 1832
Marshall's birthplace monument in Germantown, Virginia
Coat of arms of Marshall
The Hollow House
John Marshall's House in Richmond, Virginia
Marshall's Chief Justice nomination
Steel engraving of John Marshall by Alonzo Chappel
The text of the McCulloch v. Maryland decision, handed down March 6, 1819, as recorded in the minutes of the US Supreme Court
Marshall's grave
John Marshall and George Wythe
Oak Hill
Chief Justice John Marshall by William Wetmore Story, at John Marshall Park in Washington, D.C.
Marshall was the subject of a 2005 commemorative silver dollar.
Marshall on the 1890 $20 Treasury Note, one of 53 people depicted on United States banknotes
John Marshall on a Postal Issue of 1894

After returning to the United States, Marshall won election to the U.S. House of Representatives and emerged as a leader of the Federalist Party in Congress.

Jay Treaty

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1794 treaty between the United States and Great Britain that averted war, resolved issues remaining since the Treaty of Paris of 1783 , and facilitated ten years of peaceful trade between the United States and Britain in the midst of the French Revolutionary Wars, which began in 1792.

1794 treaty between the United States and Great Britain that averted war, resolved issues remaining since the Treaty of Paris of 1783 , and facilitated ten years of peaceful trade between the United States and Britain in the midst of the French Revolutionary Wars, which began in 1792.

John Jay, chief American negotiator
Thomas Jefferson was harshly critical of the treaty.

It inflamed the new growth of two opposing parties in every state, the pro-Treaty Federalists and the anti-Treaty Jeffersonian Republicans.

Clockwise from top:
Damage to the United States Capitol after the burning of Washington

Mortally wounded Isaac Brock spurs on the York Volunteers at the battle of Queenston Heights

USS Constitution vs HMS Guerriere

The death of Tecumseh in 1813

Andrew Jackson defeats the British assault on New Orleans in 1815

War of 1812

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Fought by the United States of America and its indigenous allies against the United Kingdom and its allies in British North America, with limited participation by Spain in Florida.

Fought by the United States of America and its indigenous allies against the United Kingdom and its allies in British North America, with limited participation by Spain in Florida.

Clockwise from top:
Damage to the United States Capitol after the burning of Washington

Mortally wounded Isaac Brock spurs on the York Volunteers at the battle of Queenston Heights

USS Constitution vs HMS Guerriere

The death of Tecumseh in 1813

Andrew Jackson defeats the British assault on New Orleans in 1815
Upper and Lower Canada, circa 1812
Map showing the general distribution of Indian tribes in the Northwest Territory in the early 1790s
American expansion in the Indiana Territory
James Madison, the fourth President of the United States (1809–1817). Madison was the leader of the Democratic-Republican Party, whose power base came from southern and western states.
Depiction of a British private soldier (left) and officer (right) of the period
Governor General George Prévost was urged to maintain a defensive strategy as British forces were already preoccupied with the Napoleonic Wars.
Northern theatre, War of 1812
American surrender of Detroit, August 1812
Oliver Hazard Perry's message to William Henry Harrison after the Battle of Lake Erie began as such: "We have met the enemy and they are ours".
Laura Secord providing advance warning to James FitzGibbon, which led to a British-Iroquois victory at the Battle of Beaver Dams, June 1813
Fencibles, militia, and Mohawks repel an American attack on Montreal, Battle of the Chateauguay, October 1813
American infantry prepare to attack during the Battle of Lundy's Lane
Unsuccessful British assault on Fort Erie, 14 August 1814
Defeat at Plattsburgh led Prévost to call off the invasion of New York.
The Upper Mississippi River during the War of 1812:
The Royal Navy's North American squadron was based in Halifax, Nova Scotia and Bermuda. At the start of the war, the squadron had one ship of the line, seven frigates, nine sloops as well as brigs and schooners.
USS Constitution defeats in a single-ship engagement. The battle was an important victory for American morale.
Captain Broke leads the boarding party to USS Chesapeake (1799). The British capture of Chesapeake was one of the bloodiest contests in the age of sail.
The Battle of Valparaíso ended the American naval threat to British interests in the south Pacific Ocean.
The capture of USS President was the last naval duel to take place during the conflict, with its combatants unaware of the signing of the Treaty of Ghent several weeks prior.
Marines aboard USS Wasp (1814) engage, June 1814. During the war, sloops of the United States Navy scored several victories against British sloops.
Baltimore Clippers were a series of schooners used by American privateers during the war.
A map of the American coastline. British naval strategy was to protect their shipping in North America and enforce a naval blockade on the United States.
The only known photograph of a Black Refugee, c. 1890. During the war, a number of African Americans slaves escaped aboard British ships, settling in Canada (mainly in Nova Scotia) or Trinidad.
Map of the Chesapeake Campaign
Admiralty House, at Mount Wyndham, Bermuda, where the Chesapeake campaign was planned
An artist's rendering of the bombardment at Fort McHenry during the Battle of Baltimore. Watching the bombardment from a truce ship, Francis Scott Key was inspired to write the four-stanza poem that later became "The Star-Spangled Banner".
In 1813, Creek warriors attacked Fort Mims and killed 400 to 500 people. The massacre became a rallying point for Americans.
Creek forces were defeated at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend, bringing an end to the Creek War.
American forces repelled a British assault on New Orleans in January 1815. The battle occurred before news of a peace treaty reached the United States.
A political caricature of delegates from the Hartford Convention deciding whether to leap into the hands of the British, December 1814. The convention led to widespread fears that the New England states might attempt to secede from the United States.
Depiction of the signing of the Treaty of Ghent, which formally ended the war between the British Empire and the United States
United States per capita GDP 1810–1815 in constant 2009 dollars
The Royal Naval Dockyard, Bermuda
Fort Henry at Kingston in 1836. Built from 1832 to 1836, the fort was one of several works undertaken to improve the colonies' defences.
Independence Day celebrations in 1819. In the United States, the war was followed by the Era of Good Feelings, a period that saw nationalism and a desire for national unity rise throughout the country.

Opinion was split on how to respond, and although majorities in both the House and Senate voted for war, they divided along strict party lines, with the Democratic-Republican Party in favour and the Federalist Party against.

Portrait based on the unfinished Athenaeum Portrait by Gilbert Stuart, 1796

George Washington

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American military officer, statesman, and Founding Father who served as the first president of the United States from 1789 to 1797.

American military officer, statesman, and Founding Father who served as the first president of the United States from 1789 to 1797.

Portrait based on the unfinished Athenaeum Portrait by Gilbert Stuart, 1796
Ferry Farm, the residence of the Washington family on the Rappahannock River
Lieutenant Colonel Washington holds night council at Fort Necessity
Washington the Soldier: Lieutenant Colonel Washington on horseback during the Battle of the Monongahela (oil, Reǵnier, 1834)
Colonel George Washington, by Charles Willson Peale, 1772
Martha Washington based on a 1757 portrait by John Wollaston
General Washington, Commander of the Continental Army by Charles Willson Peale (1776)
Washington taking command of the Continental Army, just before the siege.
Battle of Long Island
Alonzo Chappel (1858)
Washington Crossing the Delaware, Emanuel Leutze (1851)
The Passage of the Delaware, by Thomas Sully, 1819 (Museum of Fine Arts, Boston)
See map
The Capture of the Hessians at Trenton, December 26, 1776
by John Trumbull
Washington and Lafayette at Valley Forge, by John Ward Dunsmore (1907)
Washington Rallying the Troops at Monmouth, Emanuel Leutze (1851–1854)
An engraving of Washington, likely made after his tenure in the army.
French King Louis XVI allied with Washington and Patriot American colonists
Siege of Yorktown, Generals Washington and Rochambeau give last orders before the attack
General George Washington Resigning His Commission, by John Trumbull, 1824
Shays' Rebellion confirmed for Washington the need to overhaul the Articles of Confederation.
Scene at the Signing of the Constitution of the United States by Howard Chandler Christy, 1940. Washington is the presiding officer standing at right.
President George Washington, Gilbert Stuart (1795)
The President's House in Philadelphia was Washington's residence from 1790 to 1797
John Jay, negotiator of the Jay Treaty
Seneca chief Red Jacket was Washington's peace emissary with the Northwestern Confederacy.
Battle of Fallen Timbers by R. F. Zogbaum, 1896. The Ohio Country was ceded to America in its aftermath.
USS Constitution: Commissioned and named by President Washington in 1794
Washington's Farewell Address (September 19, 1796)
distillery
Washington on his Deathbed
Junius Brutus Stearns 1799
Miniature of George Washington by Robert Field (1800)
The sarcophagi of George (right) and Martha Washington at the present tomb's entrance
The Washington Family by Edward Savage (c. 1789–1796) George and Martha Washington with her grandchildren. National Art Gallery
George Washington's bookplate with the Coat of arms of the Washington family
George Washington as Master of his Lodge, 1793
Washington as Farmer at Mount Vernon
Junius Brutus Stearns, 1851
Runaway advertisement for Oney Judge, enslaved servant in Washington's presidential household
In 1794, Washington privately expressed to Tobias Lear, his secretary, that he found slavery to be repugnant.
Washington, the Constable by Gilbert Stuart (1797)
A drawing from a Japanese manuscript of Washington fighting a tiger.
Washington Monument, Washington, D.C.
nation's first postage stamps
Washington issue of 1862
Washington–Franklin issue of 1917
Washington quarter dollar
George Washington Presidential one-dollar coin
Washington on the 1928 dollar bill

Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton formed the Federalist Party to promote national credit and a financially powerful nation.

Electoral votes, out of 538, allocated to each state and the District of Columbia for presidential elections to be held in 2024 and 2028, based on representation, which depends on population data from the 2020 census. Every jurisdiction is entitled to at least 3.

United States Electoral College

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Group of presidential electors required by the Constitution to form every four years for the sole purpose of appointing the president and vice president.

Group of presidential electors required by the Constitution to form every four years for the sole purpose of appointing the president and vice president.

Electoral votes, out of 538, allocated to each state and the District of Columbia for presidential elections to be held in 2024 and 2028, based on representation, which depends on population data from the 2020 census. Every jurisdiction is entitled to at least 3.
In the 2020 presidential election (held using 2010 census data) Joe Biden received 306 and Donald Trump 232 of the total 538 electoral votes.
In Maine (upper-right) and Nebraska (center), the small circled numbers indicate congressional districts. These are the only two states to use a district method for some of their allocated electors, instead of a complete winner-takes-all.
Cases of certificates of the electoral college votes confirming the results of the 2020 US election, after they had been removed from the House Chambers by congressional staff during the 2021 U.S. Capitol attack.
After the popular election in November, a state's Certificate of Ascertainment officially announces the state's electors for the Electoral College. The appointed Electoral College members later meet in the state capital in December to cast their votes.
Population per electoral vote for each state and Washington, D.C. (2010 census). By 2020 estimates, a single elector could represent more than 700,000 people or under 200,000.
When the state's electors meet in December, they cast their ballots and record their vote on a Certificate of Vote, which is then sent to the U.S. Congress. (From the election of 1876)
This cartogram shows the number of electors from each state for the 2012, 2016 and 2020 presidential elections. Following the 2010 Census, New York and Ohio lost two electoral votes, 8 states lost one, 6 states gained one, Florida gained two, and Texas gained four.
This graphic demonstrates how the winner of the popular vote can still lose in an electoral college system similar to the U.S. Electoral College.
Bar graph of popular votes in presidential elections (through 2020). Black stars mark the five cases where the winner did not have the plurality of the popular vote. Black squares mark the two cases where the electoral vote resulted in a tie, or the winner did not have the majority of electoral votes. An H marks each of two cases where the election was decided by the House; an S marks the one case where the election was finalized by the Supreme Court.
These maps show the amount of attention given to each state by the Bush and Kerry campaigns (combined) during the final five weeks of the 2004 election: each waving hand (purple map) represents a visit from a presidential or vice presidential candidate; each dollar sign (green map) represents one million dollars spent on TV advertising.
Half the U.S. population lives in 143 urban / suburban counties out of 3,143 counties or county equivalents (2019 American Community Survey)

In 1796, Federalist Party candidate John Adams won the presidential election.