Feminism in France

French feminismFrench feministfeministFrench feministsfeminist movementFrancefeminismfeminist literary theory that originated in Francefeminists in FranceFrench
Feminism in France is the history of feminist thought and movements in France.wikipedia
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Feminism

feministfeministsemancipation of women
Feminism in France is the history of feminist thought and movements in France.
The words "féminisme" ("feminism") and "féministe" ("feminist") first appeared in France and the Netherlands in 1872, Great Britain in the 1890s, and the United States in 1910.

Paris Commune

CommuneCommune of ParisParis Commune of 1871
Significant contributions came from revolutionary movements of the French Revolution of 1848 and Paris Commune, culminating in 1944 when women gained the right to vote.
Some women organised a feminist movement, following earlier attempts in 1789 and 1848.

Nathalie Lemel

Nathalie Lemel, a socialist bookbinder, and Élisabeth Dmitrieff, a young Russian exile and member of the Russian section of the First International (IWA), created the Union des femmes pour la défense de Paris et les soins aux blessés ("Women's Union for the Defense of Paris and Care of the Injured") on 11 April 1871.
Nathalie Lemel (26 August 1827 - 1921 ), was a militant anarchist and feminist who participated on the barricades at the Commune de Paris of 1871.

Gisèle Halimi

Gisele Halimi
In 1971, the feminist lawyer Gisèle Halimi founded the group Choisir ("To Choose"), to protect the women who had signed "Le Manifeste des 343 Salopes" (in English "Manifesto of the 343 Sluts" or alternately "Manifesto of the 343 Bitches"), written by Simone de Beauvoir.
Gisèle Halimi (born Zeiza Gisèle Élise Taïeb; 27 July 1927) is a Tunisian and French lawyer, feminist, and essayist.

Hélène Cixous

Helene CixousCixous
Helene Cixous argues that writing and philosophy are phallocentric and along with other French feminists such as Luce Irigaray emphasize "writing from the body" as a subversive exercise.
Hélène Cixous (born 5 June 1937) is a professor, French feminist writer, poet, playwright, philosopher, literary critic and rhetorician.

Bracha L. Ettinger

Bracha EttingerBracha Lichtenberg Ettinger
From the 1980s onwards the work of the artist and psychoanalyst Bracha Ettinger has influenced literary criticism, art history and film theory.
Her ideas in cultural theory, psychoanalysis, and French feminism (see Feminist theory and psychoanalysis) achieved recognition after the publication of Matrix and Metramorphosis (1992), fragments from her notebooks (Moma, Oxford, 1993) and The Matrixial Gaze (1995).

Écriture féminine

feminist prosewomen's writing
In the 1970s, French feminist theorists approached feminism with the concept of écriture féminine (which translates as female, or feminine writing).
The theory, which unpacks the relationship between the cultural and psychological inscription of the female body and female difference in language and text, is a strain of feminist literary theory that originated in France in the early 1970s through the work of theorists including Hélène Cixous, Monique Wittig, Luce Irigaray, Chantal Chawaf, Catherine Clément, and Julia Kristeva and has subsequently been extended by writers such as psychoanalytic theorist Bracha Ettinger, who emerged in this field in the early 1990s.

Monique Wittig

Wittig
A strong feminist movement would only emerge in the aftermath of May 1968, with the creation of the Mouvement de libération des femmes (Women's Liberation Movement, MLF), allegedly by Antoinette Fouque, Monique Wittig and Josiane Chanel in 1968.
Its publication is also considered to be the founding event of French feminism.

Julia Kristeva

KristevaJ. KristevaKristeva, Julia
The work of the feminist psychoanalyst and philosopher, Julia Kristeva, has influenced feminist theory in general and feminist literary criticism in particular.
Julia Kristeva (Юлия Кръстева; born 24 June 1941) is a Bulgarian-French philosopher, literary critic, semiotician, psychoanalyst, feminist, and, most recently, novelist, who has lived in France since the mid-1960s.

Fadela Amara

After the nomination of its leader Fadela Amara to the government by Nicolas Sarkozy, Sylvie Tissot denounced a "state feminism" (an instrumentalization of feminism by state authorities) while Bouteldja qualified the NGO as an Ideological State Apparatus (AIE).
Fadela Amara, (born Fatiha Amara, April 25, 1964) is a French feminist and politician, who began her political life as an advocate for women in the impoverished banlieues.

Cécile Brunschvicg

Cécile BrunsvicgCécile BrunschwicgCécile Kahn
In 1936, the new Prime Minister, Léon Blum, included three women in the Popular Front government: Cécile Brunschvicg, Suzanne Lacore and Irène Joliot-Curie.
Cécile Brunschvicg, born Cécile Kahn (19 July 1877 in Enghien-les-Bains – 5 October 1946 in Neuilly-sur-Seine), was a French feminist politician.

Phalanstère

phalansteryphalansteresPhalansteries
His architectural model of the phalanstery community explicitly took into account women's emancipation.

Elisabeth Dmitrieff

Élisabeth DmitrieffElisaveta DmitrievaElizaveta Dmitriyeva-Tomanovskaya
Nathalie Lemel, a socialist bookbinder, and Élisabeth Dmitrieff, a young Russian exile and member of the Russian section of the First International (IWA), created the Union des femmes pour la défense de Paris et les soins aux blessés ("Women's Union for the Defense of Paris and Care of the Injured") on 11 April 1871.
*Feminism in France

Louise Michel

Louise Miche
Famous figures such as Louise Michel, the "Red Virgin of Montmartre" who joined the National Guard and would later be sent to New Caledonia, symbolize the active participation of a small number of women in the insurrectionary events.
Michel was rediscovered by French feminists in the 1970s through the works of Xavière Gauthier.

Marie-Laure Sauty de Chalon

Marie-Laure Sauty de Chalon (born September 17, 1962) is a French businesswoman and feminist.

Luce Irigaray

IrigarayIrigaray, LuceLuce Iragaray
Helene Cixous argues that writing and philosophy are phallocentric and along with other French feminists such as Luce Irigaray emphasize "writing from the body" as a subversive exercise.

Antoinette Fouque

A strong feminist movement would only emerge in the aftermath of May 1968, with the creation of the Mouvement de libération des femmes (Women's Liberation Movement, MLF), allegedly by Antoinette Fouque, Monique Wittig and Josiane Chanel in 1968.
* Feminism in France

French law on secularity and conspicuous religious symbols in schools

2004 law on secularity and conspicuous religious symbols in schoolsFrance's March 2004 law2004 French law on secularity
They frame the debate among the French Left concerning the 2004 law on secularity and conspicuous religious symbols in schools, mainly targeted against the hijab, under this light.

French Left

History of the Left in FranceFrench socialismSocialism
They frame the debate among the French Left concerning the 2004 law on secularity and conspicuous religious symbols in schools, mainly targeted against the hijab, under this light. The feminist movement expanded again in Socialist movements of the Romantic generation, in particular among Parisian Saint Simonians.
Beside de Gaulle's ordinances granting, for the first time in France, right of vote to women, the GPRF passed various labour laws, including the 11 October 1946 act establishing occupational medicine.

Christiane Scrivener

SCRIVENER Christiane
In 1974, Valéry Giscard d'Estaing was elected President, and nominated 9 women in his government between 1974 and 1981: Simone Veil, the first female minister, Françoise Giroud, named Minister of the Feminine Condition, Hélène Dorlhac, Alice Saunier-Séïté, Annie Lesur and Christiane Scrivener, Nicole Pasquier, Monique Pelletier and Hélène Missoffe.
*Feminism in France (for the representation of women in government)

France

FrenchFRAFrench Republic
Feminism in France is the history of feminist thought and movements in France.

First-wave feminism

first-wave feministfirst wavefirst wave feminism
Feminism in France can be roughly divided into three waves: First-wave feminism from the French Revolution through the Third Republic which was concerned chiefly with suffrage and civic rights for women.