Feng Guifen

Feng Guifen (1809 – May 28, 1874, courtesy name Linyi, art name Jingting, later art name Dengweishanren, jinshi degree 1840) was a scholar during the Qing Dynasty and was a strong contributor to the philosophy of the Self-Strengthening Movement undertaken in the late 19th century.wikipedia
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Self-Strengthening Movement

institutional reformattempts to modernize its militaryself-strengthening
Feng Guifen (1809 – May 28, 1874, courtesy name Linyi, art name Jingting, later art name Dengweishanren, jinshi degree 1840) was a scholar during the Qing Dynasty and was a strong contributor to the philosophy of the Self-Strengthening Movement undertaken in the late 19th century.
The concern with the "self-strengthening" of China was expressed by Feng Guifen (1809–1874) in a series of essays presented by him to Zeng Guofan in 1861.

Jinshi

jinshi degreeChin-ShihJinshi (imperial examination)
Feng Guifen (1809 – May 28, 1874, courtesy name Linyi, art name Jingting, later art name Dengweishanren, jinshi degree 1840) was a scholar during the Qing Dynasty and was a strong contributor to the philosophy of the Self-Strengthening Movement undertaken in the late 19th century. After finishing a degree in jinshi, he started working as a compiler at the Hanlin Academy in 1840 and later became the civil service examination supervisor in Guangxi Province.

Courtesy name

style namestyledZi
Feng Guifen (1809 – May 28, 1874, courtesy name Linyi, art name Jingting, later art name Dengweishanren, jinshi degree 1840) was a scholar during the Qing Dynasty and was a strong contributor to the philosophy of the Self-Strengthening Movement undertaken in the late 19th century.

Art name

pseudonymart-name
Feng Guifen (1809 – May 28, 1874, courtesy name Linyi, art name Jingting, later art name Dengweishanren, jinshi degree 1840) was a scholar during the Qing Dynasty and was a strong contributor to the philosophy of the Self-Strengthening Movement undertaken in the late 19th century.

Qing dynasty

QingQing EmpireChina
Feng Guifen (1809 – May 28, 1874, courtesy name Linyi, art name Jingting, later art name Dengweishanren, jinshi degree 1840) was a scholar during the Qing Dynasty and was a strong contributor to the philosophy of the Self-Strengthening Movement undertaken in the late 19th century.

Celestial Empire

Chinese empireDynasty of HeavenTian Chao
Feng is known for his interest in techniques by which states had become wealthy and strong, highlighting these subjects in the essay he wrote to propose reforms for the Chinese empire.

Suzhou

Suzhou, ChinaSuzhou, JiangsuSoochow
Feng was born to a family of wealthy Suzhou landowners in Wuxian in China's Jainsu Province in 1809.

Guangxi

Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous RegionGuangxi ProvinceKwangsi
After finishing a degree in jinshi, he started working as a compiler at the Hanlin Academy in 1840 and later became the civil service examination supervisor in Guangxi Province.

Viceroy of Liangjiang

LiangjiangViceroy of Jiangnanviceroy
He also finally served as a private secretary to the Viceroy of Liangjiang, Li Hongzhang.

Li Hongzhang

Li Hung-changLi Hung ChangLee Hung-cheung
He also finally served as a private secretary to the Viceroy of Liangjiang, Li Hongzhang.

Taiping Rebellion

Taiping rebelsTaipingTaiping Revolution
During the Taiping Rebellion, Feng organized a local militia to fight the rebels.

Tongzhi Restoration

T'ung Chih (Tongzhi) RestorationT'ung-chih [''Tongzhi''] Restoration
Later in his life, Feng became the leader of the jingshi school during the Tongzhi Restoration (1862-1874).

Sun Yat-sen

Sun YatsenDr. Sun Yat-senSun Zhongshan
He also had an established intellectual relationship with Sun Yat-sen.

Neo-Confucianism

Neo-ConfucianNeo-ConfucianistNeo-Confucians
In his capacity, Feng argued for self-strengthening and industrialization by borrowing western technology and military systems, while retaining core Neo-Confucian principles.

Wei Yuan

After the disasters experienced by China following Wei Yuan's death in 1857, he proposed wide-ranging reforms in a collection of works called Jiaobinlu kangyi or Essays of Protest.

Hundred Days' Reform

Hundred Days ReformWuxu Coupa coup
It is also considered one of the earliest reformist agenda of modern China and would contribute to the Hundred Days Reform of 1898.

Chinese Learning as Substance, Western Learning for Application

The idea of "Chinese Learning as Substance, Western Learning for Application" (simplified Chinese: 中体西用, traditional Chinese: 中體西用, pinyin: zhōngtǐ xīyòng) was initially proposed by Feng Guifen in his Xiaopinlu kangyi (Protests from the cottage of Feng Guifen), written in 1861 after the Second Opium War.

Imperial examination

imperial examinationsjinshicivil service examinations
A similar proposal was tabled by Feng Guifen in 1861 and Ding Richang (mathematics and science) in 1867.

Early life of Mao Zedong

his early life
He was also influenced by Feng Guifen's Personal Protests from the Study of Jiao Bin, which had been compiled in 1861.

Ding Richang

In contrast with his predecessor Feng Guifen, who considered taxes too high even after reduction, Ding considered irregularity the primary problem with the tax administration (while still needing to not overburden the peasants).

Luo Yixiu

Luo Yigu
There he spent much of his time reading, particularly historical works like Sima Qian's Records of the Grand Historian and Ban Gu's History of the Former Han Dynasty, and political tracts like Feng Guifen's Personal Protests from the Study of Jiao Bin.