Ferdinand Marcos

Marcos in 1982 during a ceremony
Ferdinand Marcos (right) with his family in the 1920s
Ferdinand Marcos being conferred with a Doctor Laws, honoris causa degree during the investiture of the first Filipino president of Central Philippine University, Rex. D. Drilon, on April 21, 1967.
Ferdinand Marcos as a soldier in the 1940s
Ferdinand Marcos is sworn into his first term on December 30, 1965.
The leaders of some of the SEATO nations in front of the Congress Building in Manila, hosted by Marcos on October 24, 1966
President Marcos (left) and his wife Imelda (center) meet with US President Lyndon B. Johnson (right) in Manila in October 1966.
Marcos with Japanese Emperor Hirohito in 1966
Ferdinand Marcos takes the Oath of Office for a second term before Chief Justice Roberto Concepcion on December 30, 1969.
Richard Nixon with the Marcos family in 1969
September 24, 1972, issue of the Sunday edition of the Philippine Daily Express
Imperial Japanese Army soldier Hiroo Onoda offering his military sword to Marcos on the day of his surrender on March 11, 1974
Ferdinand Marcos with US Secretary of State George Shultz, 1982
President Ferdinand E. Marcos in Washington in 1983
Marcos at the North–South Summit on International Cooperation and Development in Cancun alongside other world leaders including I. Gandhi, F. Mitterrand, R. Reagan, M. Thatcher, K. Waldheim, Zhao Ziyang; October 23, 1981
Corazon Aquino, widow of the assassinated opposition leader Benigno Aquino Jr., takes the Oath of Office on February 25, 1986
Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos at the White House with US President Ronald Reagan in 1982
The body of Ferdinand Marcos was stored in a refrigerated crypt at the Ferdinand E. Marcos Presidential Center in Batac, Ilocos Norte until 2016.
Students of the Ateneo de Manila University along Katipunan Avenue protesting against the burial of Marcos insisting that the former president is not a hero, but a dictator
Ferdinand Marcos in Washington, 1983
A 1999 view of the San Fernando segment of North Luzon Expressway, one of Marcos's infrastructure projects
San Juanico Bridge connecting Leyte and Samar
Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos with the Johnsons in 1966
Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos with the Nixons in 1969
Marcos greeting Robert Muldoon on the latter's official visit to the Philippines, 1980. New Zealand was a valuable strategic partner for the country in the last years of Marcos' rule.

Filipino politician, lawyer, dictator, and kleptocrat who was the 10th president of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986.

- Ferdinand Marcos
Marcos in 1982 during a ceremony

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Benigno Aquino Jr.

Both a Filipino and Spanish name.

Both a Filipino and Spanish name.

Benigno Aquino Jr. (right) with President Ramon Magsaysay in August 1951
Aquino with Jose W. Diokno; the two main opposition leaders arrested by Marcos in Laur, Nueva Ecija after Proclamation No. 1081
President Ferdinand Marcos meeting Aquino
The room where Aquino was detained from August 1973 to 1980
Aquino delivers a prepared statement against the Marcos regime
B-1836, the aircraft involved in the assassination, taxiing at Kai Tak Airport
Clothes worn by Aquino upon his return from exile at the Aquino Center in Tarlac
Aquino's grave next to his wife's at the Manila Memorial Park
Ninoy Aquino on a 2000 stamp of the Philippines

Aquino, together with Gerardo Roxas and Jovito Salonga, helped form the leadership of the opposition towards then President Ferdinand Marcos.

Aquino in 1986

Corazon Aquino

Filipina politician who served as the 11th president of the Philippines from 1986 to 1992.

Filipina politician who served as the 11th president of the Philippines from 1986 to 1992.

Aquino in 1986
Corazon Aquino taking the oath of office before Chief Justice Claudio Teehankee Sr. in Club Filipino, San Juan on 25 February 1986
Corazon Aquino during a ceremony honoring the United States Air Force.
President Corazon Aquino with U.S. Vice President Dan Quayle participate in the Veterans' Day Service at Arlington National Cemetery on 10 November 1989.
President Aquino holds talks with the officials from the International Rice Research Institute.
President Corazon Aquino addresses base workers at a rally at Remy Field concerning jobs for Filipino workers after the Americans withdraw from the U.S. facilities.
Corazon Aquino speaking before the 2003 Ninoy Aquino Award ceremony at the U.S. Embassy in Manila.
Queue for Aquino's wake in front of the Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila campus, which had opened its facilities including a clinic and restrooms for the mourners. The cross topping the dome of Manila Cathedral is visible in the upper right of the photo.
The grave of Corazon and Ninoy Aquino photographed on 8 August 2009, a week after Corazon Aquino's death. Corazon Aquino shares a gravestone with her husband Ninoy Aquino at the Manila Memorial Park in Parañaque, Philippines. Their son, Benigno III, was later interred beside their graves upon his death in June 2021.
Cory Aquino memorial at General Tinio, Nueva Ecija

She was the most prominent figure of the 1986 People Power Revolution, which ended the two-decade rule of President Ferdinand Marcos and led to the establishment of the current democratic Fifth Philippine Republic.

Imelda in July 2008

Imelda Marcos

Imelda in July 2008
Imelda Marcos in 1953
Imelda Romualdez-Marcos with former President Ferdinand Marcos and family during the 1965 inauguration
Imelda Marcos at the Bataan Death March Memorial
Lyndon B. Johnson and Imelda Marcos dancing
Meeting of the Marcoses and the Nixons in 1969 at the Malacañang Palace
Imelda Marcos features prominently in protest art displayed in the lobby of the Bantayog ng mga Bayani Museum, which documents the events of the Marcos Dictatorship and "honors the heroes and martyrs that fought the regime".

Imelda Romualdez Marcos (born Imelda Remedios Visitacion Trinidad Romualdez; July 2, 1929) is a Filipina politician and convicted criminal who was First Lady of the Philippines for 20 years, during which she and her husband Ferdinand Marcos stole billions of pesos from the Filipino people, amassing a personal fortune estimated to have been worth US$5 billion to US$10 billion by the time they were deposed in 1986.

Benigno Aquino Jr.

Assassination of Benigno Aquino Jr.

Assassinated on Sunday, August 21, 1983, on the tarmac of Manila International Airport .

Assassinated on Sunday, August 21, 1983, on the tarmac of Manila International Airport .

Benigno Aquino Jr.
B-1836, the incident aircraft, taxiing at Kai Tak Airport.
Bloodied safari jacket, pants (folded), belt, and boots worn by Aquino upon his return from exile are on permanent display at the Aquino Center in Tarlac.
The airport terminal where the assassination occurred, now the present day Terminal 1 of Manila International Airport, which as since been renamed as "Ninoy Aquino International Airport" in his honor. Many still refer to the airport by its former and call this terminal as "Ninoy Aquino Terminal".

A longtime political opponent of President Ferdinand Marcos, Aquino had just landed in his home country after three years of self-imposed exile in the United States when he was shot in the head while being escorted from an aircraft to a vehicle that was waiting to transport him to prison.

1984 Philippine parliamentary election

Held on May 14, 1984 in the Philippines.

Held on May 14, 1984 in the Philippines.

His death exposed an increasingly incapable administration under President Ferdinand Marcos, exposing serious corruption and nepotism within, including from Marcos' wife Imelda, as well as exposing Marcos' worsening health at that time.

Marcos in 2012

Bongbong Marcos

Filipino politician who is the president-elect of the Philippines.

Filipino politician who is the president-elect of the Philippines.

Marcos in 2012
Senator Marcos during a Kapihan sa Senado forum in June 2014
Marcos (center) and his running mate Sara Duterte during a grand caravan in Quezon City in December 2021
Marcos won in 64 out of 81 provinces in the 2022 presidential election

He is the second child and only son of former president, dictator, and kleptocrat Ferdinand Marcos Sr. and former first lady and convicted criminal Imelda Romualdez Marcos.

The Sunday edition of the Philippines Daily Express
on September 24, 1972, the only newspaper published after the announcement of martial law on September 21, the evening prior.

Martial law under Ferdinand Marcos

The Sunday edition of the Philippines Daily Express
on September 24, 1972, the only newspaper published after the announcement of martial law on September 21, the evening prior.
Martial Law monument in Mehan Garden
Jose W. Diokno at the MCCCL rally
Diokno's Delta Room
Aquino's Alpha Room

At 7:17 pm on September 23, 1972, President Ferdinand Marcos announced on television that he had placed the entirety of the Philippines under martial law.

1986 Philippine presidential election

The 1986 Philippine presidential and vice presidential elections were held on February 7, 1986.

The 1986 Philippine presidential and vice presidential elections were held on February 7, 1986.

After being dared by an American journalist, President Ferdinand E. Marcos declared a snap election during an interview on the American Broadcasting Company political affairs programme, This Week with David Brinkley in November 1985.

History of the Philippines (1965–1986)

Location of the Philippines in Southeast Asia.
Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos with Lyndon B. Johnson and Lady Bird Johnson during a visit to the United States.
Location of the Philippines in Southeast Asia.
Ferdinand Marcos, president from 1965 to 1986.

The history of the Philippines, from 1965 to 1986, covers the presidency of Ferdinand Marcos.

Population of each congressional district in the Philippines. Districts shaded with blue hues have less than 250,000 people, those shaded green are just over 250,000, yellow and orange are more than 250,000, and the those shaded red can be split into two or more districts.

House of Representatives of the Philippines

Lower house of the Congress of the Philippines.

Lower house of the Congress of the Philippines.

Population of each congressional district in the Philippines. Districts shaded with blue hues have less than 250,000 people, those shaded green are just over 250,000, yellow and orange are more than 250,000, and the those shaded red can be split into two or more districts.
Persons per representative per province or city in the House of Representatives: Provinces (blue) and cities (red) are arranged in descending order of population from Cavite to Batanes (provinces) and from Quezon City to San Juan (cities).
Persons per representative from 1903 to 2007. The last nationwide apportionment act was the ordinance to the 1987 constitution, which was based on the 1980 census.
William Howard Taft addressing the 1st Philippine Legislature at the Manila Grand Opera House in 1907.
The 2nd Philippine Legislature convened at The Mansion in Baguio in 1921.
Joint session of the Philippine Legislature, Manila. November 15, 1916
Philippine legislature before 1924

This set up continued until President Ferdinand Marcos declared martial law and abolished Congress.