A report on Ferdinand Marcos

Marcos in 1982 during a ceremony
Ferdinand Marcos (right) with his family in the 1920s
Ferdinand Marcos being conferred with a Doctor Laws, honoris causa degree during the investiture of the first Filipino president of Central Philippine University, Rex. D. Drilon, on April 21, 1967.
Ferdinand Marcos as a soldier in the 1940s
Ferdinand Marcos is sworn into his first term on December 30, 1965.
The leaders of some of the SEATO nations in front of the Congress Building in Manila, hosted by Marcos on October 24, 1966
President Marcos (left) and his wife Imelda (center) meet with US President Lyndon B. Johnson (right) in Manila in October 1966.
Marcos with Japanese Emperor Hirohito in 1966
Ferdinand Marcos takes the Oath of Office for a second term before Chief Justice Roberto Concepcion on December 30, 1969.
Richard Nixon with the Marcos family in 1969
September 24, 1972, issue of the Sunday edition of the Philippine Daily Express
Imperial Japanese Army soldier Hiroo Onoda offering his military sword to Marcos on the day of his surrender on March 11, 1974
Ferdinand Marcos with US Secretary of State George Shultz, 1982
President Ferdinand E. Marcos in Washington in 1983
Marcos at the North–South Summit on International Cooperation and Development in Cancun alongside other world leaders including I. Gandhi, F. Mitterrand, R. Reagan, M. Thatcher, K. Waldheim, Zhao Ziyang; October 23, 1981
Corazon Aquino, widow of the assassinated opposition leader Benigno Aquino Jr., takes the Oath of Office on February 25, 1986
Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos at the White House with US President Ronald Reagan in 1982
The body of Ferdinand Marcos was stored in a refrigerated crypt at the Ferdinand E. Marcos Presidential Center in Batac, Ilocos Norte until 2016.
Students of the Ateneo de Manila University along Katipunan Avenue protesting against the burial of Marcos insisting that the former president is not a hero, but a dictator
Ferdinand Marcos in Washington, 1983
A 1999 view of the San Fernando segment of North Luzon Expressway, one of Marcos's infrastructure projects
San Juanico Bridge connecting Leyte and Samar
Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos with the Johnsons in 1966
Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos with the Nixons in 1969
Marcos greeting Robert Muldoon on the latter's official visit to the Philippines, 1980. New Zealand was a valuable strategic partner for the country in the last years of Marcos' rule.

Filipino politician, lawyer, dictator, and kleptocrat who was the 10th president of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986.

- Ferdinand Marcos
Marcos in 1982 during a ceremony

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Aquino in 1986

Corazon Aquino

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Filipina politician who served as the 11th president of the Philippines from 1986 to 1992.

Filipina politician who served as the 11th president of the Philippines from 1986 to 1992.

Aquino in 1986
Corazon Aquino taking the oath of office before Chief Justice Claudio Teehankee Sr. in Club Filipino, San Juan on 25 February 1986
Corazon Aquino during a ceremony honoring the United States Air Force.
President Corazon Aquino with U.S. Vice President Dan Quayle participate in the Veterans' Day Service at Arlington National Cemetery on 10 November 1989.
President Aquino holds talks with the officials from the International Rice Research Institute.
President Corazon Aquino addresses base workers at a rally at Remy Field concerning jobs for Filipino workers after the Americans withdraw from the U.S. facilities.
Corazon Aquino speaking before the 2003 Ninoy Aquino Award ceremony at the U.S. Embassy in Manila.
Queue for Aquino's wake in front of the Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila campus, which had opened its facilities including a clinic and restrooms for the mourners. The cross topping the dome of Manila Cathedral is visible in the upper right of the photo.
The grave of Corazon and Ninoy Aquino photographed on 8 August 2009, a week after Corazon Aquino's death. Corazon Aquino shares a gravestone with her husband Ninoy Aquino at the Manila Memorial Park in Parañaque, Philippines. Their son, Benigno III, was later interred beside their graves upon his death in June 2021.
Cory Aquino memorial at General Tinio, Nueva Ecija

She was the most prominent figure of the 1986 People Power Revolution, which ended the two-decade rule of President Ferdinand Marcos and led to the establishment of the current democratic Fifth Philippine Republic.

Hundreds of thousands of people filling up Epifanio de los Santos Avenue (EDSA), facing northbound towards the Boni Serrano Avenue–EDSA intersection (February 1986)

People Power Revolution

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Series of popular demonstrations in the Philippines, mostly in Metro Manila, from February 22 to 25, 1986.

Series of popular demonstrations in the Philippines, mostly in Metro Manila, from February 22 to 25, 1986.

Hundreds of thousands of people filling up Epifanio de los Santos Avenue (EDSA), facing northbound towards the Boni Serrano Avenue–EDSA intersection (February 1986)
Martial law protest
Carmen and the Diokno family protest through KAAKBAY, the leading organization of the first coalition JAJA
Jovito Salonga of the Liberal Party's Salonga wing, first part of the boycott movement before campaigning for the presidential nomination
Corazon Aquino campaigning with son Noynoy
Cardinal Ricardo Vidal
A visitor at Bantayog ng mga Bayani browses through a timeline of the last moments of the protests that culminated in People Power.
Camp Aguinaldo
Jaime Cardinal Sin
Radio Veritas
Fidel Ramos
A damaged newspaper from The Manila Times covering the revolution
President Ferdinand E. Marcos is sworn by Chief Justice Ramon Aquino in the Ceremonial Hall of Malacañan Palace on February 25, 1986.
Marcos in exile in Hawaii
People Power Monument
10-peso coin commemorating the People Power Revolution

The nonviolent revolution led to the departure of Ferdinand Marcos, the end of his 20-year dictatorship and the restoration of democracy in the Philippines.

Imelda in July 2008

Imelda Marcos

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Filipino politician who served as the First Lady of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986.

Filipino politician who served as the First Lady of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986.

Imelda in July 2008
Imelda Marcos in 1953
Imelda Romualdez-Marcos with former President Ferdinand Marcos and family during the 1965 inauguration
Imelda Marcos at the Bataan Death March Memorial
Lyndon B. Johnson and Imelda Marcos dancing
Meeting of the Marcoses and the Nixons in 1969 at the Malacañang Palace
Imelda Marcos features prominently in protest art displayed in the lobby of the Bantayog ng mga Bayani Museum, which documents the events of the Marcos Dictatorship and "honors the heroes and martyrs that fought the regime".

She is the widow of former president Ferdinand Marcos and the mother of current president Ferdinand Marcos Jr.

Ninoy Aquino

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Filipino politician who served as a senator of the Philippines (1967–1972) and governor of the province of Tarlac.

Filipino politician who served as a senator of the Philippines (1967–1972) and governor of the province of Tarlac.

Benigno Aquino Jr. (right) with President Ramon Magsaysay in August 1951
Aquino with Jose W. Diokno; the two main opposition leaders arrested by Marcos in Laur, Nueva Ecija after Proclamation No. 1081
Undated photo of President Ferdinand Marcos meeting Aquino
The room where Aquino was detained from August 1973 to 1980
Aquino delivers a prepared statement against the Marcos regime
B-1836, the aircraft involved in the assassination, taxiing at Kai Tak Airport
Bloodied shirt and clothes worn by Aquino during his assassination on display at the Aquino Center and Museum in Tarlac in July 2008
The shared tomb of Ninoy and Cory Aquino was photographed on Saturday August 8, 2009, twenty-six years after his death. Benigno Aquino Jr shares a gravestone with his wife Corazon Aquino (who died in 2009) at the Manila Memorial Park in Parañaque, Philippines. Their son Benigno III was later interred beside their tombs upon his death in June 2021
Ninoy Aquino on a 2000 stamp of the Philippines

Aquino, together with Gerardo Roxas and Jovito Salonga, helped form the leadership of the opposition towards then President Ferdinand Marcos.

President of the Philippines

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Head of state and the head of government and chief executive of the Philippines.

Head of state and the head of government and chief executive of the Philippines.

Petitions were filed before the current Philippine government to recognize Andres Bonifacio as the first Philippine president.
Emilio Aguinaldo and ten of the Malolos Congress delegates that passed the Constitución Política de la República Filipina in 1899
Manuel Luis Quezon, the first president of the Philippine Commonwealth, is officially recognized as the second president of the Philippines
José P. Laurel giving a speech after his inauguration as President of the Second Philippine Republic
Home provinces (blue and purple) of the presidents.
Carlos P. Garcia is sworn in as the eighth president of the Philippines after winning the election of 1957
Rodrigo Duterte during his inauguration
Gloria Macapagal Arroyo delivering her seventh State of the Nation Address at the Batasang Pambansa
Ferdinand Marcos was the only president to serve three terms (1965–1969, 1969–1981, 1981–1986).
Sergio Osmeña was the first vice president to succeed to the presidency upon the death of a chief executive, who was Manuel L. Quezon, in 1944.
An Aérospatiale SA-330 Puma carrying President Corazon C. Aquino at Subic Bay Naval Base.
Presidents Emilio Aguinaldo and Manuel L. Quezon during the 1935 campaign.
Bongbong Marcos during his inauguration
Malacañang Palace, the official residence

In the text of Proclamation No. 1081 that placed the country under martial law in September 1972, President Ferdinand E. Marcos consistently referred to himself as "President of the Philippines."

Marcos in 2012

Bongbong Marcos

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Filipino politician who is the 17th and current president of the Philippines.

Filipino politician who is the 17th and current president of the Philippines.

Marcos in 2012
Marcos during his first State of the Nation Address.
Marcos during his first State of the Nation Address.
Senator Marcos during a Kapihan sa Senado forum in June 2014
Marcos (center) and his running mate Sara Duterte during a grand caravan in Quezon City in December 2021
Marcos won in 64 out of 81 provinces in the 2022 presidential election
Marcos delivering his inaugural address.

He is the second child and only son of former president Ferdinand Marcos Sr. and former first lady Imelda Romualdez Marcos.

Ramos in April 1998, 2 months before the end of his term

Fidel V. Ramos

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Filipino general and politician who served as the 12th president of the Philippines from 1992 to 1998.

Filipino general and politician who served as the 12th president of the Philippines from 1992 to 1998.

Ramos in April 1998, 2 months before the end of his term
Rented family house of Narciso Ramos and Angela Valdez in Lingayen, where Fidel and Leticia Ramos-Shahani were born
Chief of Indonesian National Police Lieutenant General Awaloedin Djamin received an honorary visit by Chief of Philippine Constabulary Maj. Gen. Fidel V. Ramos, AFP (left), December 1979
Former Secretary of National Defense Fidel V. Ramos taking his oath of office as the 12th president of the Philippines on June 30, 1992.
President Fidel V. Ramos troops the honor guards at the Pentagon with Secretary of Defense William Cohen during a state visit in 1998.
Ramos, then-Philippine Special Envoy to China, briefs President Rodrigo Duterte and the cabinet.
Then-BOAO Forum for Asia Chairman Ramos with former Australian Prime Minister Bob Hawke (right), and Syed Abul Hossain (center).
Ramos House marker

Ramos rose through the ranks in the Philippine military early in his career and became Chief of the Philippine Constabulary and Vice Chief-of-Staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines during the term of President Ferdinand Marcos.

The Sunday edition of the Philippines Daily Express
on September 24, 1972, the only newspaper published after the announcement of martial law on September 21, the evening prior.

Martial law under Ferdinand Marcos

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The Sunday edition of the Philippines Daily Express
on September 24, 1972, the only newspaper published after the announcement of martial law on September 21, the evening prior.
Martial Law monument in Mehan Garden
Jose W. Diokno at the MCCCL rally
Diokno's Delta Room
Aquino's Alpha Room

At 7:17 pm on September 23, 1972, President Ferdinand Marcos announced on television that he had placed the entirety of the Philippines under martial law.

Kilusang Bagong Lipunan

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Right-wing to far-right political party in the Philippines.

Right-wing to far-right political party in the Philippines.

Former logo of KBL

It was first formed in 1978 as an umbrella coalition of parties supporting then-President Ferdinand E. Marcos for the Interim Batasang Pambansa (the unicameral parliament) and was his political vehicle during his 20-year regime.

Logo since 2021

Liberal Party (Philippines)

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Liberal political party in the Philippines.

Liberal political party in the Philippines.

Logo since 2021

As a vocal opposition party to the dictatorship of Ferdinand Marcos, it reemerged as a major political party after the People Power Revolution and the establishment of the Fifth Republic.