Ferdinand Marcos

Ferdinand E. MarcosMarcosPresident MarcosPresident Ferdinand MarcosFerdinandFerdinand Edralin MarcosMarcos administrationMarcos regimePresident Ferdinand E. MarcosMarcos dictatorship
Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos Sr. (, September 11, 1917 – September 28, 1989) was a Filipino politician and kleptocrat who was the tenth President of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986.wikipedia
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History of the Philippines (1965–1986)

Marcos regimeFourth Republicmartial law
Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos Sr. (, September 11, 1917 – September 28, 1989) was a Filipino politician and kleptocrat who was the tenth President of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986.
The history of the Philippines, from 1965–1986, covers the presidency of Ferdinand Marcos, also known as Ferdinand Marcos Administration.

Corazon Aquino

Corazon C. AquinoCory AquinoCorazón Aquino
Marcos was succeeded by Corazon "Cory" Aquino, widow of the assassinated opposition leader Senator Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino Jr. who had flown back to the Philippines to face Marcos.
Corazon Aquino was the most prominent figure of the 1986 People Power Revolution, which ended the 21-year rule of President Ferdinand Marcos.

Assassination of Benigno Aquino Jr.

assassinatedassassinationAssassination of Benigno Aquino, Jr.
Marcos was succeeded by Corazon "Cory" Aquino, widow of the assassinated opposition leader Senator Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino Jr. who had flown back to the Philippines to face Marcos. After being elected for a third term in the 1981 Philippine presidential election, Marcos's popularity suffered greatly due to public outrage of the assassination of Benigno Aquino Jr. in 1983.
A longtime political opponent of President Ferdinand Marcos, he had just landed in his home country after three years of self-imposed exile in the United States when he was shot in the head while being escorted from an aircraft to a vehicle that was waiting to transport him to prison.

Imelda Marcos

ImeldaImelda Romualdez MarcosImelda R. Marcos
His wife Imelda Marcos, whose excesses during the couple's conjugal dictatorship made her infamous in her own right, spawned the term "Imeldific".
She married Ferdinand Marcos in 1954 and became First Lady in 1965 when he became President of the Philippines.

People Power Revolution

EDSA Revolution1986 EDSA Revolution1986 People Power Revolution
Allegations of mass cheating, political turmoil, and human rights abuses led to the People Power Revolution in February 1986, which removed him from power.
The nonviolent revolution led to the departure of Ferdinand Marcos, the end of his 21-year presidential rule, and the restoration of democracy in the Philippines.

Imee Marcos

ImeeImee R. MarcosImee Romualdez Marcos
Two of their children, Imee Marcos and Ferdinand "Bongbong" Marcos Jr., are still active in Philippine politics.
She is the daughter of Ferdinand E. Marcos and former First Lady Imelda R. Marcos.

Bongbong Marcos

Ferdinand Marcos Jr.Ferdinand Marcos, Jr.Bongbong
Two of their children, Imee Marcos and Ferdinand "Bongbong" Marcos Jr., are still active in Philippine politics.
He is the second child and only son of former President and dictator Ferdinand E. Marcos and of former First Lady Imelda Romualdez-Marcos.

Kilusang Bagong Lipunan

KBLNew Society MovementBagong Lipunan
A leading member of the far-right New Society Movement, he ruled as a dictator under martial law from 1972 until 1981.
It was formed in 1978, as an umbrella coalition of parties supporting then-President Ferdinand E. Marcos for the Interim Batasang Pambansa (National Assembly), and was his political vehicle during his rule.

Presidential Commission on Good Government

Presidential Commission on Good GovernanceChairperson of the Presidential Commissioner on Good GovernmentPCGG
According to source documents provided by the Presidential Commission on Good Government (PCGG), the Marcos family stole US$5–10 billion.
Corazon Aquino to recover ill-gotten wealth accumulated during the Marcos regime in the Philippines.

Marcos family

Marcos dynastyMarcosesJosefa Edralin
Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos was born on September 11, 1917 in the town of Sarrat, Ilocos Norte to Mariano Marcos (1897–1945) and Josefa Edralin (1893–1988).
They have established themselves in the country's politics having established a political dynasty that traces its beginnings to the 1925 election of Mariano Marcos to the Philippine House of Representatives as congressman for the second district of Ilocos Norte; reached its peak during the 21-year reign of Ferdinand Marcos as president of the Philippines that included the declaration of Martial Law throughout the country; and continues today with the political careers of Imelda Marcos, Imee Marcos, and Ferdinand Marcos Jr.

1986 Philippine presidential election

19861986 Snap Electionssnap elections
Both of these factors alongside growing discontent and the discovery of documents exposing his finances and falsified war records, led him to call the snap elections of 1986.
A presidential and vice-presidential election was held on February 7, 1986 in the Philippines, and is popularly known as the snap election that followed the end of martial law and brought about the People Power Revolution, the downfall of President Ferdinand E. Marcos, and the accession of Corazon C. Aquino as president.

Mariano Marcos

MarianoDon Mariano Marcos y RubioMariano Rubio Marcos
Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos was born on September 11, 1917 in the town of Sarrat, Ilocos Norte to Mariano Marcos (1897–1945) and Josefa Edralin (1893–1988).
A Congressman from 1925 to 1931, he is best known for being the father of Ferdinand Marcos, who was President of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986.

Nacionalista Party

NacionalistaNPNac.
Marcos joined the "Liberal Wing" that split from the Nacionalista Party, which eventually became the Liberal Party.
The Nacionalista Party is the oldest political party in the Philippines and in Southeast Asia, responsible for leading the country throughout the majority of the 20th century since its founding in 1907, being the ruling party from 1935 to 1946 (under Presidents Manuel Quezon and Sergio Osmeña), 1953–1961 (under Presidents Ramon Magsaysay and Carlos P. Garcia) and 1965–1972 (under President Ferdinand Marcos).

Ilocos Norte

Ilocos Norte ProvinceGovernor of Ilocos NorteIlocos
Mariano Marcos was a lawyer and congressman from Ilocos Norte, Philippines.
Ilocos Norte is noted for being the birthplace of the former President Ferdinand E. Marcos.

Philippine Bar Examination

bar examinationsPhilippine Bar Examinationsbar exams
When he sat for the 1939 Bar Examinations, he was the bar topnotcher (top scorer), with a near-perfect score of 98.8%, but allegations of cheating prompted the Philippine Supreme Court to re-calibrate his score to 92.35%.
Ferdinand Marcos accepted the resignations and appointed the new Justices.

President of the Philippines

PresidentPhilippine PresidentPresidents
Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos Sr. (, September 11, 1917 – September 28, 1989) was a Filipino politician and kleptocrat who was the tenth President of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986.
A new Constitution ratified on January 17, 1973 under the rule of Ferdinand E. Marcos introduced a parliamentary-style government.

Cultural Center of the Philippines

CCPCCP ComplexCCP Tanghalang Pambansa
The grandest infrastructure projects of Marcos's first term, especially the Cultural Center of the Philippines complex, also marked the beginning of what critics would call Marcos couple's Edifice complex, with grand public infrastructures projects prioritized for public funding because of their propaganda value.
30 s. 1966 by President Ferdinand Marcos.

Jovito Salonga

Jovito R. SalongaSenator Jovito SalongaDr. Jovito Salonga
Marcos's spending during the campaign led to opposition figures such as Senator Lorenzo Tañada, Senator Jovito Salonga, and Senator Jose Diokno to accuse Marcos of wanting to stay in power even beyond the two term maximum set for the presidency by the 1935 constitution.
Jovito "Jovy" Reyes Salonga (June 22, 1920 – March 10, 2016) was a Filipino statesman and lawyer, as well as a leading opposition leader during the regime of Ferdinand Marcos from the declaration of martial law in 1972 until the People Power Revolution in 1986, which removed Marcos from power.

University of the Philippines College of Law

College of LawUP College of LawU.P. College of Law
Marcos studied law at the University of the Philippines in Manila, attending the College of Law. While attending the UP College of Law, he became a member of the Upsilon Sigma Phi, where he met his future colleagues in government and some of his staunchest critics.
UP Law graduated many leading figures in the country's political history, including former Philippine presidents Manuel A. Roxas, José P. Laurel, Elpidio Quirino, and Ferdinand E. Marcos, as well as prominent jurists such as former chief justices Teresita de Castro, Maria Lourdes Sereno, Reynato S. Puno, Hilario Davide, Jr., Marcelo B. Fernan, Ramon Aquino, Felix V. Makasiar, Enrique M. Fernando, Fred Ruiz Castro, César Bengzon, Ricardo Paras, and José Yulo.

Diosdado Macapagal

Diosdado P. MacapagalMacapagalPresident Diosdado Macapagal
He eventually became the Liberal Party's spokesman on economic matters, and was made chairman of the House Neophytes Bloc which included future President Diosdado Macapagal, future Vice President Emmanuel Pelaez and future Manila Mayor Arsenio Lacson.
He stood for re-election in 1965, and was defeated by Ferdinand Marcos, who subsequently ruled for 21 years.

University of the Philippines Manila

University of the PhilippinesUniversity of the Philippines, ManilaUP Manila
Marcos studied law at the University of the Philippines in Manila, attending the College of Law.
58, promulgated on November 20, 1972, under the administration of President Ferdinand E. Marcos.

Aquilino Pimentel Jr.

Aquilino Pimentel, Jr.Aquilino Q. Pimentel, Jr.Aquilino Pimentel
Other delegates would become influential political figures, including Hilario Davide, Jr., Marcelo Fernan, Sotero Laurel, Aquilino Pimentel, Jr., Teofisto Guingona, Jr., Raul Roco, Edgardo Angara, Richard Gordon, Margarito Teves, and Federico Dela Plana.
Aquilino Quilinging Pimentel Jr. (December 11, 1933 – October 20, 2019), commonly known as Nene Pimentel, was a Filipino politician and human rights lawyer who was one of the leading political opposition leaders during the regime of Ferdinand Marcos from the declaration of martial law in 1972 until the People Power Revolution in 1986, which removed Marcos from power.

Upsilon Sigma Phi

While attending the UP College of Law, he became a member of the Upsilon Sigma Phi, where he met his future colleagues in government and some of his staunchest critics.
The administration of President Ferdinand E. Marcos saw Upsilon members lead opposing sides in the leadership of the Philippines.

Fernando Lopez

Fernando LópezFernando H. Lopez Fernando
His running mate, incumbent Vice President Fernando Lopez was also elected to a third full term as Vice President of the Philippines.
A member of the influential López family of Iloilo, López served as Vice President of the Philippines for three terms – under Elpidio Quirino (1949–1953) for the Liberals and Ferdinand Marcos (1965–1969 and 1969–1972) for the Nacionalistas.

1969 Philippine presidential election

19691969 presidential electionre-elected
A report of the U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee said that shortly after the 1969 Philippine presidential election, a group composed mostly of retired colonels and generals organized a revolutionary junta with the aim of first discrediting President Marcos and then killing him.
Incumbent President Ferdinand Marcos won an unprecedented second full term as President of the Philippines.