Marcos in 1982 during a ceremony
Population of each congressional district in the Philippines. Districts shaded with blue hues have less than 250,000 people, those shaded green are just over 250,000, yellow and orange are more than 250,000, and the those shaded red can be split into two or more districts.
Ferdinand Marcos (right) with his family in the 1920s
Persons per representative per province or city in the House of Representatives: Provinces (blue) and cities (red) are arranged in descending order of population from Cavite to Batanes (provinces) and from Quezon City to San Juan (cities).
Persons per representative from 1903 to 2007. The last nationwide apportionment act was the ordinance to the 1987 constitution, which was based on the 1980 census.
Ferdinand Marcos being conferred with a Doctor Laws, honoris causa degree during the investiture of the first Filipino president of Central Philippine University, Rex. D. Drilon, on April 21, 1967.
William Howard Taft addressing the 1st Philippine Legislature at the Manila Grand Opera House in 1907.
Ferdinand Marcos as a soldier in the 1940s
The 2nd Philippine Legislature convened at The Mansion in Baguio in 1921.
Ferdinand Marcos is sworn into his first term on December 30, 1965.
Joint session of the Philippine Legislature, Manila. November 15, 1916
The leaders of some of the SEATO nations in front of the Congress Building in Manila, hosted by Marcos on October 24, 1966
Philippine legislature before 1924
President Marcos (left) and his wife Imelda (center) meet with US President Lyndon B. Johnson (right) in Manila in October 1966.
Marcos with Japanese Emperor Hirohito in 1966
Ferdinand Marcos takes the Oath of Office for a second term before Chief Justice Roberto Concepcion on December 30, 1969.
Richard Nixon with the Marcos family in 1969
September 24, 1972, issue of the Sunday edition of the Philippine Daily Express
Imperial Japanese Army soldier Hiroo Onoda offering his military sword to Marcos on the day of his surrender on March 11, 1974
Ferdinand Marcos with US Secretary of State George Shultz, 1982
President Ferdinand E. Marcos in Washington in 1983
Marcos at the North–South Summit on International Cooperation and Development in Cancun alongside other world leaders including I. Gandhi, F. Mitterrand, R. Reagan, M. Thatcher, K. Waldheim, Zhao Ziyang; October 23, 1981
Corazon Aquino, widow of the assassinated opposition leader Benigno Aquino Jr., takes the Oath of Office on February 25, 1986
Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos at the White House with US President Ronald Reagan in 1982
The body of Ferdinand Marcos was stored in a refrigerated crypt at the Ferdinand E. Marcos Presidential Center in Batac, Ilocos Norte until 2016.
Students of the Ateneo de Manila University along Katipunan Avenue protesting against the burial of Marcos insisting that the former president is not a hero, but a dictator
Ferdinand Marcos in Washington, 1983
A 1999 view of the San Fernando segment of North Luzon Expressway, one of Marcos's infrastructure projects
San Juanico Bridge connecting Leyte and Samar
Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos with the Johnsons in 1966
Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos with the Nixons in 1969
Marcos greeting Robert Muldoon on the latter's official visit to the Philippines, 1980. New Zealand was a valuable strategic partner for the country in the last years of Marcos' rule.

After World War II, he became a lawyer then served in the Philippine House of Representatives from 1949 to 1959 and the Philippine Senate from 1959 to 1965.

- Ferdinand Marcos

This set up continued until President Ferdinand Marcos declared martial law and abolished Congress.

- House of Representatives of the Philippines
Marcos in 1982 during a ceremony

8 related topics


Aquino in 1986

Corazon Aquino

Filipina politician who served as the 11th president of the Philippines from 1986 to 1992.

Filipina politician who served as the 11th president of the Philippines from 1986 to 1992.

Aquino in 1986
Corazon Aquino taking the oath of office before Chief Justice Claudio Teehankee Sr. in Club Filipino, San Juan on 25 February 1986
Corazon Aquino during a ceremony honoring the United States Air Force.
President Corazon Aquino with U.S. Vice President Dan Quayle participate in the Veterans' Day Service at Arlington National Cemetery on 10 November 1989.
President Aquino holds talks with the officials from the International Rice Research Institute.
President Corazon Aquino addresses base workers at a rally at Remy Field concerning jobs for Filipino workers after the Americans withdraw from the U.S. facilities.
Corazon Aquino speaking before the 2003 Ninoy Aquino Award ceremony at the U.S. Embassy in Manila.
Queue for Aquino's wake in front of the Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila campus, which had opened its facilities including a clinic and restrooms for the mourners. The cross topping the dome of Manila Cathedral is visible in the upper right of the photo.
The grave of Corazon and Ninoy Aquino photographed on 8 August 2009, a week after Corazon Aquino's death. Corazon Aquino shares a gravestone with her husband Ninoy Aquino at the Manila Memorial Park in Parañaque, Philippines. Their son, Benigno III, was later interred beside their graves upon his death in June 2021.
Cory Aquino memorial at General Tinio, Nueva Ecija

She was the most prominent figure of the 1986 People Power Revolution, which ended the two-decade rule of President Ferdinand Marcos and led to the establishment of the current democratic Fifth Philippine Republic.

Initially, she named Ramon V. Mitra, Speaker of the Philippine House of Representatives who had been a friend of her husband, as her preferred candidate for the 1992 presidential elections.

President of the Philippines

Head of state and the head of government and chief executive of the Philippines.

Head of state and the head of government and chief executive of the Philippines.

Petitions were filed before the current Philippine government to recognize Andres Bonifacio as the first Philippine president.
Emilio Aguinaldo and ten of the Malolos Congress delegates that passed the Constitución Política de la República Filipina in 1899
Manuel Luis Quezon, the first president of the Philippine Commonwealth, is officially recognized as the second president of the Philippines
José P. Laurel giving a speech after his inauguration as President of the Second Philippine Republic
Home provinces (blue and purple) of the presidents.
Carlos P. Garcia is sworn in as the eighth president of the Philippines after winning the election of 1957
Rodrigo Duterte during his inauguration
Gloria Macapagal Arroyo delivering her seventh State of the Nation Address at the Batasang Pambansa
Ferdinand Marcos was the only president to serve three terms (1965–1969, 1969–1981, 1981–1986).
Sergio Osmeña was the first vice president to succeed to the presidency upon the death of a chief executive, who was Manuel L. Quezon, in 1944.
An Aérospatiale SA-330 Puma carrying President Corazon C. Aquino at Subic Bay Naval Base.
Presidents Emilio Aguinaldo and Manuel L. Quezon during the 1935 campaign.

In the same year, representatives of the Philippine House of Representatives passed a house resolution that sought to acknowledge Bonifacio as the first president.

A new Constitution ratified on January 17, 1973, under the rule of Ferdinand E. Marcos introduced a parliamentary-style government.

Joint session of Philippine Legislature including the newly elected Senate, November 15, 1916

Senate of the Philippines

Joint session of Philippine Legislature including the newly elected Senate, November 15, 1916
The post–World War II Philippine Senate in 1951: Cipriano P. Primicias, Sr., far left, debates Quintín Paredes, far right. In the middle are Justiniano Montano, Mariano Jesús Cuenco, Enrique B. Magalona, and Francisco Delgado; in the foreground is Edmundo Cea. Deliberations were once held at the Old Legislative Building.

The Senate of the Philippines (Filipino: Senado ng Pilipinas, also Mataas na Kapulungan ng Pilipinas or "upper chamber") is the upper house of Congress, the bicameral legislature of the Philippines; the House of Representatives is the lower house.

The Senate finally convened in 1945 and served as the upper chamber of Congress from thereon until the declaration of martial law by President Ferdinand Marcos in 1972, which shut down Congress.


Archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.

Archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.

Philip II of Spain
The Laguna Copperplate Inscription, the oldest known writing found in the Philippines
Manila (1847)
Filipino Ilustrados in Spain formed the Propaganda Movement. Photographed in 1890.
General Douglas MacArthur coming ashore during the Battle of Leyte on October 20, 1944
The 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo was the second largest volcanic eruption of the 20th century.
Topography of the Philippines
Mayon is an active stratovolcano, located in the south of the island of Luzon
The Philippine Eagle is endemic to the forests of the country.
A male Celestial monarch seen in Bislig.
Köppen climate classification of the Philippines
Malacañan Palace is the official residence of the president of the Philippines.
President Rodrigo Duterte and U.S. President Donald Trump discuss matters during a bilateral meeting in November 2017.
BRP Jose Rizal (FF-150) is the lead ship of her class of guided missile frigates of the Philippine Navy
Administrative map of the Philippines
Dominant ethnic groups by province
A map that shows all ethnolinguistic groups in the Philippines.
The historical Paoay Church in Ilocos Norte. Declared as a National Cultural Treasure by the Philippine government in 1973 and a UNESCO World Heritage Site under the collective group of Baroque Churches of the Philippines in 1993.
St. Luke's Medical Center in Taguig.
Founded in 1611, the University of Santo Tomas is the oldest extant university in Asia.
Real GPD per capita development of the Philippines
A proportional representation of Philippines exports, 2019
Filipinos planting rice. Agriculture employs 23% of the Filipino workforce.
Headquarters of the International Rice Research Institute in Los Baños, Laguna.
Limestone cliffs of El Nido, Palawan.
An LRT Line 2 train at Santolan station.
Ambuklao Dam in Bokod, Benguet.
A participant of the Ati-Atihan Festival.
A statue in Iriga City commemorating the mano po gesture
Colonial houses in Vigan.
Cariñosa, a Hispanic era dance for traditional Filipino courtship.
José Rizal is a pioneer of Philippine Revolution through his literary works.
Philippines men's national basketball team celebrating the 2015 Southeast Asian Games championship.

In 1965, Macapagal lost the presidential election to Ferdinand Marcos.

The bicameral Congress is composed of the Senate, serving as the upper house, with members elected to a six-year term, and the House of Representatives, serving as the lower house, with members elected to a three-year term.

Ramos in April 1998, 2 months before the end of his term

Fidel V. Ramos

Retired Filipino general and politician who served as the 12th president of the Philippines from 1992 to 1998.

Retired Filipino general and politician who served as the 12th president of the Philippines from 1992 to 1998.

Ramos in April 1998, 2 months before the end of his term
Rented family house of Narciso Ramos and Angela Valdez in Lingayen, where Fidel and Leticia Ramos-Shahani were born
Chief of Indonesian National Police Lieutenant General Awaloedin Djamin received an honorary visit by Chief of Philippine Constabulary Maj. Gen. Fidel V. Ramos, AFP (left), December 1979
Former Secretary of National Defense Fidel V. Ramos taking his oath of office as the 12th president of the Philippines on June 30, 1992.
President Fidel V. Ramos troops the honor guards at the Pentagon with Secretary of Defense William Cohen during a state visit in 1998.
Ramos, then-Philippine Special Envoy to China, briefs President Rodrigo Duterte and the cabinet.
Then-BOAO Forum for Asia Chairman Ramos with former Australian Prime Minister Bob Hawke (right), and Syed Abul Hossain (center).
Ramos House marker

He rose the ranks in the Philippine military early in his career and became Chief of the Philippine Constabulary and Vice Chief-of-Staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines during the term of President Ferdinand Marcos.

His father, Narciso Ramos (1900–1986), was a lawyer, journalist and five-term legislator of the House of Representatives, who eventually rose to the position of Secretary of Foreign Affairs.

1935 Constitution and its tabernacle displayed at Quezon Memorial Circle, Quezon City

Constitution of the Philippines

Constitution or supreme law of the Republic of the Philippines.

Constitution or supreme law of the Republic of the Philippines.

1935 Constitution and its tabernacle displayed at Quezon Memorial Circle, Quezon City
The Memorial at Biak-na-Bato National Park
José P. Laurel, President of the Second Philippine Republic, addresses the National Assembly in what is now the Old Legislative Building to approve the 1943 Constitution.

The Constitutional Commission was composed of forty-eight members appointed by Aquino from varied backgrounds, including several former members of the House of Representatives, former justices of the Supreme Court, a Roman Catholic bishop, and political activists against the Marcos regime.

Possibly the most controversial issue was removing the presidential term limit so that Ferdinand E. Marcos could seek re-election for a third term, which many felt was the true reason for which the convention was called.

Logo since 2021

Liberal Party (Philippines)

Liberal political party in the Philippines.

Liberal political party in the Philippines.

Logo since 2021

As a vocal opposition party to the dictatorship of Ferdinand Marcos, it reemerged as a major political party after the People Power Revolution and the establishment of the Fifth Republic.

The LP is the largest party outside of Rodrigo Duterte's supermajority, holding 18 seats in the House of Representatives.

Kilusang Bagong Lipunan

Right-wing to far-right political party in the Philippines.

Right-wing to far-right political party in the Philippines.

Former logo of KBL

It was first formed in 1978 as an umbrella coalition of parties supporting then-President Ferdinand E. Marcos for the Interim Batasang Pambansa (the unicameral parliament) and was his political vehicle during his 21-year regime.

Since 1986, the KBL has contested in most of the national and local elections in the Philippines, but retained a single seat in the House of Representatives in Ilocos Norte, which was held by former First Lady Imelda Marcos until 2019.