A report on Ferdinand Marcos and Imelda Marcos

Marcos in 1982 during a ceremony
Imelda in July 2008
Ferdinand Marcos (right) with his family in the 1920s
Imelda Marcos in 1953
Imelda Romualdez-Marcos with former President Ferdinand Marcos and family during the 1965 inauguration
Ferdinand Marcos being conferred with a Doctor Laws, honoris causa degree during the investiture of the first Filipino president of Central Philippine University, Rex. D. Drilon, on April 21, 1967.
Imelda Marcos at the Bataan Death March Memorial
Ferdinand Marcos as a soldier in the 1940s
Lyndon B. Johnson and Imelda Marcos dancing
Ferdinand Marcos is sworn into his first term on December 30, 1965.
Meeting of the Marcoses and the Nixons in 1969 at the Malacañang Palace
The leaders of some of the SEATO nations in front of the Congress Building in Manila, hosted by Marcos on October 24, 1966
Imelda Marcos features prominently in protest art displayed in the lobby of the Bantayog ng mga Bayani Museum, which documents the events of the Marcos Dictatorship and "honors the heroes and martyrs that fought the regime".
President Marcos (left) and his wife Imelda (center) meet with US President Lyndon B. Johnson (right) in Manila in October 1966.
Marcos with Japanese Emperor Hirohito in 1966
Ferdinand Marcos takes the Oath of Office for a second term before Chief Justice Roberto Concepcion on December 30, 1969.
Richard Nixon with the Marcos family in 1969
September 24, 1972, issue of the Sunday edition of the Philippine Daily Express
Imperial Japanese Army soldier Hiroo Onoda offering his military sword to Marcos on the day of his surrender on March 11, 1974
Ferdinand Marcos with US Secretary of State George Shultz, 1982
President Ferdinand E. Marcos in Washington in 1983
Marcos at the North–South Summit on International Cooperation and Development in Cancun alongside other world leaders including I. Gandhi, F. Mitterrand, R. Reagan, M. Thatcher, K. Waldheim, Zhao Ziyang; October 23, 1981
Corazon Aquino, widow of the assassinated opposition leader Benigno Aquino Jr., takes the Oath of Office on February 25, 1986
Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos at the White House with US President Ronald Reagan in 1982
The body of Ferdinand Marcos was stored in a refrigerated crypt at the Ferdinand E. Marcos Presidential Center in Batac, Ilocos Norte until 2016.
Students of the Ateneo de Manila University along Katipunan Avenue protesting against the burial of Marcos insisting that the former president is not a hero, but a dictator
Ferdinand Marcos in Washington, 1983
A 1999 view of the San Fernando segment of North Luzon Expressway, one of Marcos's infrastructure projects
San Juanico Bridge connecting Leyte and Samar
Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos with the Johnsons in 1966
Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos with the Nixons in 1969
Marcos greeting Robert Muldoon on the latter's official visit to the Philippines, 1980. New Zealand was a valuable strategic partner for the country in the last years of Marcos' rule.

She is the widow of former president Ferdinand Marcos and the mother of current president Ferdinand Marcos Jr.

- Imelda Marcos

His wife, Imelda Marcos, made infamous in her own right by the excesses that characterized her and her husband's conjugal dictatorship, is the source of the term "Imeldific".

- Ferdinand Marcos
Marcos in 1982 during a ceremony

18 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Hundreds of thousands of people filling up Epifanio de los Santos Avenue (EDSA), facing northbound towards the Boni Serrano Avenue–EDSA intersection (February 1986)

People Power Revolution

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Series of popular demonstrations in the Philippines, mostly in Metro Manila, from February 22 to 25, 1986.

Series of popular demonstrations in the Philippines, mostly in Metro Manila, from February 22 to 25, 1986.

Hundreds of thousands of people filling up Epifanio de los Santos Avenue (EDSA), facing northbound towards the Boni Serrano Avenue–EDSA intersection (February 1986)
Martial law protest
Carmen and the Diokno family protest through KAAKBAY, the leading organization of the first coalition JAJA
Jovito Salonga of the Liberal Party's Salonga wing, first part of the boycott movement before campaigning for the presidential nomination
Corazon Aquino campaigning with son Noynoy
Cardinal Ricardo Vidal
A visitor at Bantayog ng mga Bayani browses through a timeline of the last moments of the protests that culminated in People Power.
Camp Aguinaldo
Jaime Cardinal Sin
Radio Veritas
Fidel Ramos
A damaged newspaper from The Manila Times covering the revolution
President Ferdinand E. Marcos is sworn by Chief Justice Ramon Aquino in the Ceremonial Hall of Malacañan Palace on February 25, 1986.
Marcos in exile in Hawaii
People Power Monument
10-peso coin commemorating the People Power Revolution

The nonviolent revolution led to the departure of Ferdinand Marcos, the end of his 20-year dictatorship and the restoration of democracy in the Philippines.

Despite warnings from the military and First Lady Imelda Marcos, Ninoy Aquino was determined to return home.

Edifice complex

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The term "edifice complex" was coined in the 1970s to describe Philippine First Lady Imelda Marcos' practice of using publicly funded construction projects as political and election propaganda.

While earlier use of the term elsewhere in the world has been suggested, the term was independently coined by Behn Cervantes to criticise the construction of the Cultural Center of the Philippines during the buildup to the 1969 presidential election campaign, during which Imelda Marcos' husband Ferdinand Marcos was running for a then-unprecedented second term as President of the Philippines.

Kilusang Bagong Lipunan

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Right-wing to far-right political party in the Philippines.

Right-wing to far-right political party in the Philippines.

Former logo of KBL

It was first formed in 1978 as an umbrella coalition of parties supporting then-President Ferdinand E. Marcos for the Interim Batasang Pambansa (the unicameral parliament) and was his political vehicle during his 20-year regime.

Since 1986, the KBL has contested in most of the national and local elections in the Philippines, but retained a single seat in the House of Representatives in Ilocos Norte, which was held by former First Lady Imelda Marcos until 2019.

Marcos in 2012

Bongbong Marcos

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Filipino politician who is the 17th and current president of the Philippines.

Filipino politician who is the 17th and current president of the Philippines.

Marcos in 2012
Marcos during his first State of the Nation Address.
Marcos during his first State of the Nation Address.
Senator Marcos during a Kapihan sa Senado forum in June 2014
Marcos (center) and his running mate Sara Duterte during a grand caravan in Quezon City in December 2021
Marcos won in 64 out of 81 provinces in the 2022 presidential election
Marcos delivering his inaugural address.

He is the second child and only son of former president Ferdinand Marcos Sr. and former first lady Imelda Romualdez Marcos.

Benigno Aquino Jr.

Assassination of Ninoy Aquino

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Assassinated on Sunday, August 21, 1983, on the tarmac of Manila International Airport .

Assassinated on Sunday, August 21, 1983, on the tarmac of Manila International Airport .

Benigno Aquino Jr.
B-1836, the incident aircraft, taxiing at Kai Tak Airport.
Bloodied safari jacket, pants (folded), belt, and boots worn by Aquino upon his return from exile are on permanent display at the Aquino Center in Tarlac.
The airport terminal where the assassination occurred, now the present day Terminal 1 of Manila International Airport, which as since been renamed as "Ninoy Aquino International Airport" in his honor. Many still refer to the airport by its former and call this terminal as "Ninoy Aquino Terminal".

A longtime political opponent of President Ferdinand Marcos, Aquino had just landed in his home country after three years of self-imposed exile in the United States when he was shot in the head while being escorted from an aircraft to a vehicle that was waiting to transport him to prison.

In 1980, he had a heart attack in prison and was allowed to leave the country two months later by Marcos' wife, Imelda.

Philippines

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Archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.

Archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.

Philip II of Spain
The Laguna Copperplate Inscription, the oldest known writing found in the Philippines
Manila (1847)
Filipino Ilustrados in Spain formed the Propaganda Movement. Photographed in 1890.
General Douglas MacArthur coming ashore during the Battle of Leyte on October 20, 1944
The 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo was the second largest volcanic eruption of the 20th century.
Topography of the Philippines
Mayon is an active stratovolcano, located in the south of the island of Luzon
The Philippine Eagle is endemic to the forests of the country.
A male Celestial monarch seen in Bislig.
Köppen climate classification of the Philippines
Malacañan Palace is the official residence of the president of the Philippines.
President Rodrigo Duterte and U.S. President Donald Trump discuss matters during a bilateral meeting in November 2017.
BRP Jose Rizal (FF-150) is the lead ship of her class of guided missile frigates of the Philippine Navy
Administrative map of the Philippines
Dominant ethnic groups by province
A map that shows all ethnolinguistic groups in the Philippines.
The historical Paoay Church in Ilocos Norte. Declared as a National Cultural Treasure by the Philippine government in 1973 and a UNESCO World Heritage Site under the collective group of Baroque Churches of the Philippines in 1993.
St. Luke's Medical Center in Taguig.
Founded in 1611, the University of Santo Tomas is the oldest extant university in Asia.
Real GPD per capita development of the Philippines
A proportional representation of Philippines exports, 2019
Filipinos planting rice. Agriculture employs 23% of the Filipino workforce.
Headquarters of the International Rice Research Institute in Los Baños, Laguna.
Limestone cliffs of El Nido, Palawan.
An LRT Line 2 train at Santolan station.
Ambuklao Dam in Bokod, Benguet.
A participant of the Ati-Atihan Festival.
A statue in Iriga City commemorating the mano po gesture
Colonial houses in Vigan.
Cariñosa, a Hispanic era dance for traditional Filipino courtship.
José Rizal is a pioneer of Philippine Revolution through his literary works.
Philippines men's national basketball team celebrating the 2015 Southeast Asian Games championship.

In 1965, Macapagal lost the presidential election to Ferdinand Marcos.

Early in his presidency, Marcos initiated numerous infrastructure projects but, together with his wife Imelda, was accused of corruption and embezzling billions of dollars in public funds.

Cultural Center of the Philippines

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Government-owned and controlled corporation established to preserve, develop and promote arts and culture in the Philippines.

Government-owned and controlled corporation established to preserve, develop and promote arts and culture in the Philippines.

The Tanghalang Pambansa in 2012.
CCP Complex from the air.
The Tanghalang Maria Makiling at the National Arts Center in Los Baños
The façade of the Angelo King Center for the Performing Arts

The CCP was established through Executive Order No. 30 s. 1966 by President Ferdinand Marcos.

In the meantime in 1965, Imelda Marcos at a proclamation rally in Cebu for her husband's bid for the Presidency, expressed her desire to build a national theater.

1986 Philippine presidential election

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The 1986 Philippine presidential and vice presidential elections were held on February 7, 1986.

The 1986 Philippine presidential and vice presidential elections were held on February 7, 1986.

After being dared by an American journalist, President Ferdinand E. Marcos declared a snap election during an interview on the American Broadcasting Company political affairs programme, This Week with David Brinkley in November 1985.

There had been incessant speculations of Philippine "capital flight" that not only involved Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos themselves, but also government officials and friends of the first family.

Minor Basilica of the Immaculate Concepcion

Catholic Church in the Philippines

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Part of the worldwide Catholic Church, under the spiritual direction of the Pope and the Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines .

Part of the worldwide Catholic Church, under the spiritual direction of the Pope and the Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines .

Minor Basilica of the Immaculate Concepcion
Manila Cathedral, circa pre-1900
Filipinas ready for church, 1905
The Santo Niño de Cebú, the oldest Christian artifact in the Philippines. In 1521, Ferdinand Magellan gave this statue to a Cebuano chieftain that converted to Christianity
Magellan's Cross outside of the Basilica del Santo Niño, Cebu City. The Cross is a symbol of the introduction of Christianity to the islands.
Roman Catholic ceremony in the Philippines, circa pre-1930
Catholic procession of the Black Nazarene in Manila, 2010
Quiapo Church, the Basilica Minore of the Nazarene is home of the statue of the Black Nazarene, which is the focus of widespread popular devotion in the country.
Pope Francis in Tacloban in January 2015
President Duterte meets with Cardinal Tagle at the Malacañan Palace
The Blessed Virgin Mary under the title of the Immaculate Concepcion, is the principal patroness of the Philippines
Our Lady of Peñafrancia has almost five to nine million devotees attending its annual feast in Naga City.
Map of the Philippines showing the different archdioceses.
Map of the Philippines showing the different apostolic vicariates.

When the Philippines was placed under Martial Law by dictator Ferdinand Marcos, relations between Church and State changed dramatically, as some bishops expressly and openly opposed Martial Law.

Our Lady of Soterraña de Nieva, currently under the ownership of Imelda Marcos

1978 Philippine parliamentary election

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Held in the Philippines on April 7, 1978, for the election of the 165 regional representatives to the Interim Batasang Pambansa .

Held in the Philippines on April 7, 1978, for the election of the 165 regional representatives to the Interim Batasang Pambansa .

The elections were participated in by the leading opposition party, the Lakas ng Bayan (LABAN), which had twenty-one candidates for the Metro Manila area while the leading candidate was the jailed opposition leader Ninoy Aquino, and the Marcos regime's party known as the Kilusang Bagong Lipunan (KBL), which was led by the then-First Lady Imelda Marcos.

The Philippines had been under martial law since 1972, with incumbent president Ferdinand Marcos ruling by decree.