Fertility

Countries by fertility rate as of 2020
Chance of fertilization by menstrual cycle day relative to ovulation.
United States crude birth rate (births per 1000 population); Baby Boom years in red.

Capability to produce offspring through reproduction following the onset of sexual maturity.

- Fertility
Countries by fertility rate as of 2020

23 related topics

Alpha

Diagram of the female human reproductive tract and ovaries

Vagina

Elastic, muscular part of the female genital tract.

Elastic, muscular part of the female genital tract.

Diagram of the female human reproductive tract and ovaries
Pelvic anatomy including organs of the female reproductive system
An illustration showing a cut-away portion of the vagina and upper female genital tract (only one ovary and fallopian tube shown). Circular folds (also called rugae) of vaginal mucosa can be seen.
Medium-power magnification micrograph of a H&E stained slide showing a portion of a vaginal wall. Stratified squamous epithelium and underling connective tissue can be seen. The deeper muscular layers are not shown. The black line points to a fold in the mucosa.
Folds of mucosa (or vaginal rugae) are shown in the front third of a vagina.
A disposable plastic bi-valved vaginal speculum used in gynecological examination
A normal cervix of an adult as seen through the vagina (per vaginam or PV) using a bivalved vaginal speculum. The blades of the speculum are above and below and stretched vaginal walls are seen on the left and right.
Pre-menopausal vaginal mucosa (left) versus menopausal vaginal mucosa (right)
An ultrasound showing the urinary bladder (1), uterus (2), and vagina (3)
The womb represents a powerful symbol as the yoni in Hinduism. Pictured is a stone yoni found in Cát Tiên sanctuary, Lam Dong, Vietnam.
A sheep gives birth by vagina.

Before and during ovulation, the mucus glands within the cervix secrete different variations of mucus, which provides an alkaline, fertile environment in the vaginal canal that is favorable to the survival of sperm.

Symptoms of menopause

Menopause

Symptoms of menopause
Size of the vaginal canal before and after menopause, demonstrating vaginal atrophy.
Bone loss due to menopause occurs due to changes in a woman's hormone levels.

Menopause, also known as the climacteric, is the time in women's lives when menstrual periods stop permanently, and they are no longer able to bear children.

Map of countries by fertility rate (2020), according to the Population Reference Bureau

Total fertility rate

Obtained by summing the single-year age-specific rates at a given time.

Obtained by summing the single-year age-specific rates at a given time.

Map of countries by fertility rate (2020), according to the Population Reference Bureau
Total fertility rate for selected countries
A plot of population growth rate vs total fertility rate (logarithmic). Symbol radius reflect population size in each country
Total Fertility Rate vs Human Development Index for Selected Countries
224x224px
Total fertility rate projections by region
Map of East Asia by total fertility rate (TFR) in 2020
Map of U.S. states by total fertility rate (TFR) in 2013.
History of US Total Fertility Rate from 1933 to 2016.
Map of East Asia by total fertility rate (TFR) in 2021

1) she were to experience the exact current age-specific fertility rates (ASFRs) through her lifetime

The ovaries form part of the female reproductive system, and attach to the fallopian tubes

Ovary

Organ in the female reproductive system that produces an ovum.

Organ in the female reproductive system that produces an ovum.

The ovaries form part of the female reproductive system, and attach to the fallopian tubes
Micrograph of the ovarian cortex from a rhesus monkey showing several round follicles embedded in a matrix of stromal cells. A secondary follicle sectioned through the nucleus of an oocyte is at the upper left, and earlier stage follicles are at the lower right. The tissue was stained with the dyes hematoxylin and eosin.
The process of ovulation and gamete production, oogenesis, in a human ovary.
Polycystic ovaries typically found in polycystic ovarian syndrome
Ovarian torsion. Present in rats
Ovary of a marine fish and its parasite, the nematode Philometra fasciati
Left Ovary
Ovaries

The ovaries also secrete hormones that play a role in the menstrual cycle and fertility.

The Demography of the World Population from 1950 to 2100. Data source: United Nations — World Population Prospects 2017

Demography

Statistical study of populations, especially human beings.

Statistical study of populations, especially human beings.

The Demography of the World Population from 1950 to 2100. Data source: United Nations — World Population Prospects 2017
Map of countries by population
Rate of human population growth showing projections for later this century

They include models of mortality (including the life table, Gompertz models, hazards models, Cox proportional hazards models, multiple decrement life tables, Brass relational logits), fertility (Hermes model, Coale-Trussell models, parity progression ratios), marriage (Singulate Mean at Marriage, Page model), disability (Sullivan's method, multistate life tables), population projections (Lee-Carter model, the Leslie Matrix), and population momentum (Keyfitz).

Various sex positons

Sex position

Position of the body that people use for sexual intercourse or other sexual activities.

Position of the body that people use for sexual intercourse or other sexual activities.

Various sex positons
A love scene sculpture from the Sunga period (c. 1st century BCE)
Tondo of an Attic red-figure kylix by the Triptolemos Painter, c. 470 BC, Tarquinia National Museum
A rear-penetration position, commonly referred to as 'doggy style'. The receiving partner can be penetrated either vaginally or anally.
The 'cowgirl' position
A couple performing sexual intercourse from a seated position, called the lotus position or lotus flower
One partner stands while holding up the other without a support, called the Suspended Congress in the Kama Sutra
Anal sex between two men in the missionary position
The T-square position
Modern drawing of fellatio
19th-century depiction of cunnilingus (detail) by Paul Avril
The 69 position
Woman performing anilingus on another woman
Drawing by Franz von Bayros showing an act of fingering
Double penetration
Two men and two women ringed in a circular foursome sex position performing four combinations of oral sex: M–F, F–F, F–M, M–M
A tergo in lying position

Pregnancy is a potential result of any form of sexual activity where sperm comes in contact with the vagina; this is typically during vaginal sex, but pregnancy can result from anal sex, digital sex (fingering), oral sex, or by another body part, if sperm is transferred from one area to the vagina between a fertile female and a fertile male.

A depiction of the procedure of in-vitro fertilization.

Infertility

Inability of a person, animal or plant to reproduce by natural means.

Inability of a person, animal or plant to reproduce by natural means.

A depiction of the procedure of in-vitro fertilization.

It is the normal state of a human child or other young offspring, because they have not undergone puberty, which is the body's start of reproductive capacity.

The Demography of the World Population from 1950 to 2100. Data source: United Nations — World Population Prospects 2017

Fecundity

The Demography of the World Population from 1950 to 2100. Data source: United Nations — World Population Prospects 2017

Fecundity is defined in two ways; in human demography, it is the potential for reproduction of a recorded population as opposed to a sole organism, while in population biology, it is considered similar to fertility, the natural capability to produce offspring, measured by the number of gametes (eggs), seed set, or asexual propagules.

Human sperm stained for semen quality testing in the clinical laboratory

Semen analysis

A semen analysis (plural: semen analyses), also called seminogram or spermiogram, evaluates certain characteristics of a male's semen and the sperm contained therein.

A semen analysis (plural: semen analyses), also called seminogram or spermiogram, evaluates certain characteristics of a male's semen and the sperm contained therein.

Human sperm stained for semen quality testing in the clinical laboratory
Approximate pregnancy rate varies with amount of sperm used in an artificial insemination cycle. Values are for intrauterine insemination, with sperm number in total sperm count, which may be approximately twice the total motile sperm count.

It is done to help evaluate male fertility, whether for those seeking pregnancy or verifying the success of vasectomy.

Map of countries by fertility rate (2020), according to the Population Reference Bureau

Fertility and intelligence

The relationship between fertility and intelligence has been investigated in many demographic studies.

The relationship between fertility and intelligence has been investigated in many demographic studies.

Map of countries by fertility rate (2020), according to the Population Reference Bureau

There is evidence that, on a population level, intelligence is negatively correlated with fertility rate and positively correlated with survival rate of offspring.