fertilemale fertilityfemale fertilityhuman fertilitypeoplesexually fertileable to bear childrenantifertility actionbegetting of childrenBongaarts' model of components of fertility
Fertility is the natural capability to produce offspring.wikipedia
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A lack of fertility is infertility while a lack of fecundity would be called sterility.
Women who are fertile experience a natural period of fertility before and during ovulation, and they are naturally infertile for the rest of the menstrual cycle.


fecundburst sizefecundate
Fertility differs from fecundity, which is defined as the potential for reproduction (influenced by gamete production, fertilization and carrying a pregnancy to term).
Fecundity is similar to fertility, the natural capability to produce offspring.

Total fertility rate

fertility ratefertility ratesreplacement rate
As a measure, fertility rate is the number of offspring born per mating pair, individual or population.
1) She was to experience the exact current age-specific fertility rates (ASFRs) through her lifetime, and

Age and female fertility

biological clockincreased female agebiological clocks
Factors generally associated with decreased fertility include wealth, education, female labor participation, urban residence, intelligence, increased female age and (to a lesser degree) increased male age.
Female fertility is affected by age.

Sterility (physiology)

A lack of fertility is infertility while a lack of fecundity would be called sterility.
Sterility can be caused by different closely related species breeding and producing offspring, these animals are usually sterile due to different numbers of chromosomes from the two parents, causing an imbalance in the resulting offspring making it viable but not fertile, this is the case with the mule.


breast feedingbreastfeedbreast-feeding
Certain physical conditions may make it impossible for a woman to conceive. This is called "involuntary infecundity." If the woman has a condition making it possible, but unlikely to conceive, this is termed "subfecundity." Venereal diseases (especially gonorrhea, syphilis, and chlamydia) are common causes. Nutrition is a factor as well: women with less than 20% body fat may be subfecund, a factor of concern for athletes and people susceptible to anorexia. Demographer Ruth Frisch has argued that "It takes 50,000 calories to make a baby". There is also subfecundity in the weeks following childbirth, and this can be prolonged for a year or more through breastfeeding. A furious political debate raged in the 1980s over the ethics of baby food companies marketing infant formula in developing countries. A large industry has developed to deal with subfecundity in women and men. An equally large industry has emerged to provide contraceptive devices designed to prevent conception. Their effectiveness in use varies. On average, 85% of married couples using no contraception will have a pregnancy in one year. The rate drops to the 20% range when using withdrawal, vaginal sponges, or spermicides. (This assumes the partners never forget to use the contraceptive.) The rate drops to only 2 or 3% when using the pill or an IUD, and drops to near 0% for implants and 0% for tubal ligation (sterilization) of the woman, or a vasectomy for the man.
Breastfeeding delays the return of menstruation and fertility, a phenomenon known as lactational amenorrhea.


endocrinologistendocrinologistsEndocrinology & Metabolism
Human fertility depends on factors of nutrition, sexual behavior, consanguinity, culture, instinct, endocrinology, timing, economics, way of life, and emotions.
Reproductive endocrinologists deal primarily with problems of fertility and menstrual function—often training first in obstetrics.

Semen quality

sperm qualityqualitysperm viability
Men are fertile continuously, but their sperm quality is affected by their health, frequency of ejaculation, and environmental factors.
Thus, it is a measure of fertility in a man.


The ovule is usually capable of being fertilized for up to 48 hours after it is released from the ovary.
The ovaries also secrete hormones that play a role in the menstrual cycle and fertility.

John Bongaarts

Bongaarts proposed a model where the total fertility rate of a population can be calculated from four proximate determinants and the total fecundity (TF).
Bongaarts has performed research a broad variety of topics, such as: population ageing, fertility, population policy options, life expectancy.


Menopause occurs during a woman's midlife (between ages 48 and 55).
Menopause, also known as the climacteric, is the time in most women's lives when menstrual periods stop permanently, and they are no longer able to bear children.


first periodfirst menstrual periodfirst menstruation
The average age of menarche in the United States is about 12.5 years.
From both social and medical perspectives, it is often considered the central event of female puberty, as it signals the possibility of fertility.

Fertility medication

fertility drugsfertility drugfertility agents
The use of fertility drugs and/or invitro fertilization can increase the chances of becoming pregnant at a later age.
Fertility medication, better known as fertility drugs, are drugs which enhance reproductive fertility.

Household economics

household economist
The "Three-step Analysis" of the fertility process was introduced by Kingsley Davis and Judith Blake in 1956 and makes use of three proximate determinants: The economic analysis of fertility is part of household economics, a field that has grown out of the New Home Economics.
child-related topics: fertility and parental investments in children's wellbeing

Semen analysis

sperm countsemen sampleLeuco'''spermia
It is suggested that sperm count declines with age, with men aged 50–80 years producing sperm at an average rate of 75% compared with men aged 20–50 years and that larger differences are seen in how many of the seminiferous tubules in the testes contain mature sperm:
It is done to help evaluate male fertility, whether for those seeking pregnancy or verifying the success of vasectomy.


birth canalvaginalvaginas
Studies have shown no significant difference between different sex positions and pregnancy rate, as long as it results in ejaculation into the vagina.
Before and during ovulation, the mucus glands within the cervix secrete different variations of mucus, which provides an alkaline, fertile environment in the vaginal canal that is favorable to the survival of sperm.

Menstrual cycle

menstrual periodmenstrualmenstruating
This fertile window varies from woman to woman, just as the ovulation date often varies from cycle to cycle for the same woman.
A woman's fertility is also affected by her age.


sperm cellspermatiasperm cells
Sperm survive inside the uterus between 48 and 72 hours on average, with the maximum being 120 hours (5 days).
Thus, in humans, it is a measure of fertility in a man.

Sex position

sexual positiondouble penetrationsexual positions
Studies have shown no significant difference between different sex positions and pregnancy rate, as long as it results in ejaculation into the vagina.
Pregnancy is a potential result of any form of sexual activity where sperm comes in contact with the vagina; this is typically during vaginal sex, but pregnancy can result from anal sex, digital sex (fingering), oral sex, or by another body part, if sperm is transferred from one area to the vagina between a fertile female and a fertile male.

List of fertility deities

fertility goddessfertility godfertility
Fertility deity
A fertility deity is a god or goddess associated with fertility, pregnancy, and childbirth.

Fertility preservation

protect their fertility
Fertility preservation
Fertility preservation is the effort to help cancer patients retain their fertility, or ability to procreate.

Fertility factor (demography)

fertility factorfertility factorsfertility
Fertility factor (demography)
Fertility factors are mostly positive or negative correlations without certain causations.

Natural fertility

Natural fertility
Natural fertility is a concept developed by the French historical demographer Louis Henry to refer to the level of fertility that would prevail in a population that makes no conscious effort to limit, regulate, or control fertility, so that fertility depends only on physiological factors affecting fecundity.

Income and fertility

fertility-income paradoxdeclining fertility rateincome
Factors generally associated with decreased fertility include wealth, education, female labor participation, urban residence, intelligence, increased female age and (to a lesser degree) increased male age.
Income and fertility is the association between monetary gain on one hand, and the tendency to produce offspring on the other.

Family economics

familyeconomics of the familyeconomics of households
Family economics
fertility and the demand for children in developed and developing countries