Countries by fertility rate as of 2020
Chance of fertilization by menstrual cycle day relative to ovulation.
United States crude birth rate (births per 1000 population); Baby Boom years in red.

Capability to produce offspring through reproduction following the onset of sexual maturity.

- Fertility

500 related topics


Tree of life

Fundamental archetype in many of the world's mythologies, religious, and philosophical traditions.

An 1847 depiction of the Norse Yggdrasil as described in the Icelandic Prose Edda by Oluf Olufsen Bagge
17th-century depiction of the tree of life in Palace of Shaki Khans, Azerbaijan
Confronted animals, here ibexes, flank a tree of Life, a very common motif in the art of the ancient Near East and Mediterranean
Assyrian tree of life, from Nimrud panels.
The Urartian tree of life
Tree of life on a rhyton from Marlik, Iran, currently at the National Museum of Iran.
Bronze Tree with birds, flowers, and ornaments from Sanxingdui
Allegorical painting of the Tree of Life in the Church of San Roque of Arahal (Seville). Oil on canvas by anonymous author. Dated 1723
Manichaeans worshiping the Tree of Life in the Realm of Light. Mid 9th — early 11th century.
11th century tree of life sculpture at an ancient Swedish church
Carpet tree of life
Judaic Kabbalah tree of life 10 Sefirot, through which the Ein Sof unknowable divine manifests Creation. The configuration relates to man
The tree of life, as seen as in flag of Chuvashia, a Turkic state in the Russian Federation

Various trees of life are recounted in folklore, culture and fiction, often relating to immortality or fertility.

Mercury (mythology)

Major god in Roman religion and mythology, being one of the 12 Dii Consentes within the ancient Roman pantheon.

Mercurius by Artus Quellinus the Elder
Fresco of Mercury-Hermes in Pompeii, 1st century
Seated Hermes, excavated at the Villa of the Papyri.
Mercury portrait on a bronze Semuncia (215–211 BC)
Mercury-Hermes, antique fresco from Pompeii
Bronze figurine of Mercury with three phalluses, with rooster in the left hand and money bag in the right hand, 100 to 250 A.D., found in Tongeren, ca 8,8 cm Gallo-Roman Museum (Tongeren)
Hendrik Goltzius: Mercury, with his symbols
Jan Gerritsz van Bronckhorst: Jupiter Gives Orders to Mercury to Kill Argus
A statue of the Greek god Hermes at Hart House, Toronto
Mercury as the winged messenger on a 1949 St. Lucia stamp issued in connection with the Universal Postal Union

He was often accompanied by a rooster, herald of the new day, a ram or goat, symbolizing fertility, and a tortoise, referring to Mercury's legendary invention of the lyre from a tortoise shell.

Venus (mythology)

Venus rising from the sea, from the Casa della Venere in conchiglia, Pompeii. Before AD 79
A 2nd- or 3rd-century bronze figurine of Venus, in the collection of the Museum of Fine Arts of Lyon
Venus and Mars, with Cupid attending, in a wall painting from Pompeii
Imperial image of Venus suggesting influence from Syria or Palestine, or from the cult of Isis
Remains of the Temple of Venus Genetrix in the Forum of Caesar, Rome.
Fresco with a seated Venus, restored as a personification of Rome in the so-called "Dea Barberini" ("Barberini goddess"); Roman artwork, dated first half of the 4th century AD, from a room near the Baptistery of San Giovanni in Laterano
A Venus-Aphrodite velificans holding an infant, probably Aeneas, as Anchises and Luna-Selene look on (Roman-era relief from Aphrodisias)
A medallion painting from the House of Marcus Fabius Rufus in Pompeii, Italy, executed in the Second Style and depicting the Greco-Roman goddess Venus-Aphrodite in regalia, with diadem and scepter; it is dated to the 1st century BC.
Venus riding a quadriga of elephants, fresco from Pompeii, 1st century AD
Statue of nude Venus of the Capitoline type, Roman, 2nd century AD, from Campo Iemini, housed in the British Museum
The Birth of Venus, by Sandro Botticelli c. 1485–1486.
Venus, Mars, and Vulcan, by Tintoretto
Venus Anadyomene (ca. 1525) by Titian
Venus with a Mirror (ca. 1555) by Titian
Venus by Frans Floris, Hallwyl Museum
Venus and Cupid, painting ca. 1650–1700, by Peter Paul Rubens
Mars Being Disarmed by Venus (1822–1825) by Jacques-Louis David
Birth of Venus (1863) by Alexandre Cabanel
Tannhäuser in the Venusberg (1901) by John Collier
Russian Venus (1926) by Boris Kustodiev
Iris presenting the wounded Venus to Mars by Sir George Hayter, 1820 – Ante Library, Chatsworth House
Fragmentary base for an altar of Venus and Mars, showing cupids or erotes playing with the war-god's weapons and chariot. From the reign of Trajan (98–117 AD)

Venus is a Roman goddess, whose functions encompass love, beauty, desire, sex, fertility, prosperity, and victory.


Regular discharge of blood and mucosal tissue from the inner lining of the uterus through the vagina.

Diagram illustrating how the uterus lining builds up and breaks down during the menstrual cycle
Menstrual cup filled with menstrual fluid
Half-used blister pack of a combined oral contraceptive. The white pills are placebos, mainly for the purpose of reminding the woman to continue taking the pills.
Amra Padatik India, celebration of Menstrual Hygiene Day in India
Awareness raising through education is taking place among women and girls to modify or eliminate the practice of chhaupadi in Nepal.

Peak fertility (the time with the highest likelihood of pregnancy resulting from sexual intercourse) occurs during just a few days of the cycle: usually two days before and two days after the ovulation date.

XYY syndrome

Aneuploid genetic condition in which a male has an extra Y chromosome.

Karyotype from a male with 47,XYY

The person is generally otherwise normal, including typical rates of fertility.

Werner syndrome

Rare, autosomal recessive disorder which is characterized by the appearance of premature aging.

Werner syndrome has an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance.

Other symptoms include change in voice (weak, hoarse, high-pitched), atrophy of gonads leading to reduced fertility, bilateral cataracts (clouding of lens), premature arteriosclerosis (thickening and loss of elasticity of arteries), calcinosis (calcium deposits in blood vessels), atherosclerosis (blockage of blood vessels), type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis (loss of bone mass), telangiectasia, and malignancies.

A Midsummer Night's Dream

Comedy written by William Shakespeare c. undefined 1595 or 1596.

Oberon, Titania and Puck with Fairies Dancing by William Blake, c. 1786
Hermia and Helena by Washington Allston, 1818
The Quarrel of Oberon and Titania by Joseph Noel Paton, 1849
A drawing of Puck, Titania and Bottom in A Midsummer Night's Dream from Act III, Scene II by Charles Buchel, 1905
Titania and Bottom, Henry Fuseli (c.1790)
The title page from the first quarto, printed in 1600
Hermia and Lysander by John Simmons (1870)
Edwin Landseer, Scene from A Midsummer Night's Dream. Titania and Bottom (1848)
The Awakening of the Fairy Queen Titania
Midsummer Eve by Edward Robert Hughes c. 1908
Samuel Pepys, who wrote the oldest known comments on the play, found A Midsummer Night's Dream to be "the most insipid ridiculous play that ever I saw in my life".
William Hazlitt preferred reading A Midsummer Night's Dream over watching it acted on stage.
La Folie de Titania, by Jean Louis Paul Gervais, 1897
Georg Gottfried Gervinus thought Hermia lacking in filial piety and devoid of conscience for running away with Lysander, himself not a shining beacon of virtue (here seen wooing Helena).
Charles Cowden Clarke appreciated the mechanicals, and in particular found Nick Bottom conceited but good-natured and imaginative.
Horace Howard Furness defended A Midsummer Night's Dream from claims of inconsistency, and felt this did not detract from the quality of the play.
Alex Aronson considered Puck a representation of the unconscious mind and a contrast to Theseus as a representation of the conscious mind.
The first page printed in the Second Folio of 1632
Vince Cardinale as Puck from the Carmel Shakespeare Festival production of A Midsummer Night's Dream, September 2000
Performance by Saratov Puppet Theatre "Teremok" A Midsummer Night's Dream based on the play by William Shakespeare (2007)
A 2010 production of the play at The Doon School, India
Puck by Joshua Reynolds, 1789
Titania and Bottom by Johann Heinrich Füssli 1793–94
Titania and Bottom by John Anster Fitzgerald
Joseph Noel Paton: The Reconciliation of Titania and Oberon
The Marriage of Oberon and Titania by John Anster Fitzgerald
Henry Meynell Rheam: Titania welcoming her fairy brethren
A Midsummer Night's Dream by John Simmons, 1873
Thomas Stothard – Oberon and Titania from A Midsummer Night's Dream, Act IV, Scene I
An animatronic depicts the character Oberon, King of the Elves in the Dutch fairytale theme park Efteling, designed by Ton van de Ven.

Aronson thought that the play explores unauthorised desire and linked it to the concept of fertility.


Third largest city in Poland and a former industrial centre.

Sigillum oppidi Lodzia - seal dating back to 1577
One of the first city plans, illustrating the housing allotments and new development around Piotrkowska Street, 1823
Izrael Poznański's industrial complex (Manufaktura) pictured in 1895.
The Archcathedral of St. Stanislaus Kostka, completed in 1912, is one of Poland's tallest churches.
Plac Wolności (Liberty Square) with the Tadeusz Kościuszko Monument and Holy Spirit Church in 1930
Łódź Ghetto (Ghetto Litzmannstadt), was the second-largest ghetto in all of German-occupied Europe
Retkinia, one of many post-war utilitarian residential areas on the outskirts of Łódź.
Female employees at a textile factory in Łódź, 1950s
Sculpture of Artur Rubinstein and his childhood home at Piotrkowska Street
Light Move Festival in Łódź
Muzeum Sztuki, ms2 branch, a museum and gallery of modern art
Las Łagiewnicki (Lagiewniki Forest), part of the Łódź Hills Landscape Park
Herbst Palace, designed by Hilary Majewski, an art gallery within a historical mansion, which holds paintings from all over Europe
High-rise buildings in central Łódź
Manufaktura - once a textile factory, now a shopping centre
Major road network in the city
Łódź tram network
Piotrkowska Centrum tram station, also known as "The Unicorn Stable"
Atlas Arena, the main indoor arena of Łódź

At its peak in 1988 the population was around 854,000, however, the it has since declined due to low fertility rates, outer migration and a lower life expectancy than in other parts of Poland.

Uncanny valley

Hypothesized relation between an object's degree of resemblance to a human being and the emotional response to the object.

Hypothesized emotional response of subjects is plotted against anthropomorphism of a robot, following Masahiro Mori's statements. The uncanny valley is the region of negative emotional response towards robots that seem "almost" human. Movement amplifies the emotional response.
In an experiment involving the human lookalike robot Repliee Q2 (pictured above), the uncovered robotic structure underneath Repliee, and the actual human who was the model for Repliee, the human lookalike triggered the highest level of mirror neuron activity.
An empirically estimated uncanny valley for static robot face images

Mate selection: Automatic, stimulus-driven appraisals of uncanny stimuli elicit aversion by activating an evolved cognitive mechanism for the avoidance of selecting mates with low fertility, poor hormonal health, or ineffective immune systems based on visible features of the face and body that are predictive of those traits.

Sex-chromosome dosage compensation

Process by which organisms equalize the expression of genes between members of different biological sexes.

Three main mechanisms of dosage compensation observed in common model eukaryotic organisms.
Platypus, a type of monotreme

It is common in such organisms for the Y chromosome to be necessary for male fertility, but not for it to play an explicit role in sex determination.