Countries by fertility rate as of 2020
Chance of fertilization by menstrual cycle day relative to ovulation.
United States crude birth rate (births per 1000 population); Baby Boom years in red.

Capability to produce offspring through reproduction following the onset of sexual maturity.

- Fertility

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Genus of about 850 species of woody trees, shrubs, vines, epiphytes and hemiepiphytes in the family Moraceae.

Aerial roots that may eventually provide structural support
A Ficus carica (common fig)
The stipule of Ficus religiosa. The white stipule contains a new leaf and a new stipule.
A common fig fruit
Cut through of a ripe common fig
Ficus exasperata, fruits
Leaves of the sacred fig (Ficus religiosa)
Fig tree roots overgrowing a sandstone Buddha statue, near Wat Maha That in Ayutthaya province, Thailand
Ficus tree in front of Sarkaradevi Temple, Kerala, India

The fig tree was sacred in ancient Greece and Cyprus, where it was a symbol of fertility.

Serpent symbolism

One of the oldest and most widespread mythological symbols.

A serpent in the municipal arms of Kyyjärvi
The Maya Vision Serpent
Meditating Buddha being shielded by the naga Mucalinda. Cambodia, 1150 to 1175
Níðhöggr gnaws the roots of Yggdrasil in this illustration from a 17th-century Icelandic manuscript.
The "libation vase of Gudea" with the dragon Mushussu, dedicated to Ningishzida (twentieth century BCE short chronology). The caduceus is interpreted as depicting the god himself.
Vishnu resting on Ananta-Shesha, with Lakshmi massaging his "lotus feet"
An ancient painting of Nüwa and Fuxi unearthed in Xinjiang
Mami Wata, important in African and African-American religions
Snake decoration on Bronze Age pot from Rumailah, Al Ain
The Brazen Serpent (watercolor circa 1896–1902 by James Tissot)
Serpent on a jewelry box from Shahdad, Iran, 2700 BC
The archaic Gorgon at the pediment of the Temple of Artemis as shown at the Archaeological Museum of Corfu. She wears a belt of intertwined snakes, a fertility symbol.
Statue of Asclepius
Hoysala sculpture of a Naga couple, Halebidu
Ancient North American serpent imagery often featured rattlesnakes.
The Star of Life features a Rod of Asclepius.
Imperial Japan depicted as an evil snake in a WWII propaganda poster

For example, the Hopi people of North America performed an annual snake dance to celebrate the union of Snake Youth (a Sky spirit) and Snake Girl (an Underworld spirit) and to renew the fertility of Nature.


Viral disease caused by the mumps virus.

Child with mumps

Testicular inflammation may result in reduced fertility and, rarely, sterility.

Pope Gelasius I

The bishop of Rome from 1 March 492 to his death on 19 November 496.

Statue of Gelasius I, Schloss Stainz
Image of c. AD 870 featuring the coronation of Charles the Bald, flanked by Gelasius I and Gregory the Great. Gelasius' writings gave him a high status with posterity.

Gelasius' letter to the Senator Andromachus treated the primary contentions of the controversy and incidentally provided some details of the festival, which combined fertility and purification, that might have been lost otherwise.


Essential amino acid in humans.

S-Adenosyl-methionine is a cofactor derived from methionine.
Methionine biosynthesis
Fates of methionine
The Yang cycle

A study published in Nature showed adding just the essential amino acid methionine to the diet of fruit flies under dietary restriction, including restriction of essential amino acids (EAAs), restored fertility without reducing the longer lifespans that are typical of dietary restriction, leading the researchers to determine that methionine "acts in combination with one or more other EAAs to shorten lifespan."

Biointensive agriculture

Organic agricultural system that focuses on achieving maximum yields from a minimum area of land, while simultaneously increasing biodiversity and sustaining the fertility of the soil.

Double digging with spade and fork loosens the soil, to increase drainage and aeration.

In order to achieve sustainable fertility on a closed system basis, the biointensive method uses carbon and calorie farming, an aikido-style of work (using the least amount of energy or effort to achieve the greatest amount of work or production), composting—including safe and legal human waste recycling—the use of open pollinated seeds, and limited land use, which allows farmers and gardeners to retain more of the land in a wild state for genetic diversity and an ecosystem balance.


Marine mammal.

Dugong skeleton displayed at Philippine National Museum
Bones in the forelimb can fuse variously with age.
Dugong tail fluke
Dugong on the sea floor at Marsa Alam, Egypt
Dugong with attached remora off Lamen Island, Vanuatu
A mother and calf in shallow water
Typical dugong feeding area in Moreton Bay
Dugong mother and offspring from East Timor
A cave painting of a dugong – Tambun Cave, Perak, Malaysia

There is evidence that male dugongs lose fertility at older ages.


The rotifers (, from Latin rota "wheel" and -fer "bearing"), commonly called wheel animals or wheel animalcules, make up a phylum (Rotifera ) of microscopic and near-microscopic pseudocoelomate animals.

Scanning electron micrographs showing morphological variation of bdelloid rotifers and their jaws.
Pair of Lepadella rotifers from pond water
Locula of the rotifer Keratella cochlearis

Males do not usually have a functional digestive system, and are therefore short-lived, often being sexually fertile at birth.


Greek island and the largest of the Cyclades.

Landscape of the island
Apollo Temple's entrance (Portara)
Neolithic finds from the Zas cave: jewelry, pottery, tools; archaeological museum of Naxos
Temple of Demeter
Fotodotis monastery
The Duchy of Naxos and other Frankish states, carved from the Byzantine Empire, as they were in 1265.
Sanudo tower, part of the Duchal Palace
Belonia tower
Emery mine
Marble quarry of Naxos. Note large green truck at lower left of the marble face.
Sanctuary of Dionysus (Yria)
Sphinx of Naxos, now at Delphi Archaeological Museum
Crispi tower, housing the Byzantine museum
Panagia Drosiani church, Moni village
The monastery of Faneromeni
Presentation of the Lord Catholic church of Naxos
Koronos village
Filoti village
Tower in Filoti
Apollonas village
Keramoti village
Tower in Apeiranthos

Naxos is the most fertile island of the Cyclades.

Crohn's disease

Type of inflammatory bowel disease that may affect any segment of the gastrointestinal tract.

The three most common sites of intestinal involvement in Crohn's disease (left) compared to the areas affected by colitis ulcerosa (right).
An aphthous ulcer on the mucous membrane of the mouth in Crohn's disease.
A single lesion of erythema nodosum
Endoscopic image of colon cancer identified in the sigmoid colon on screening colonoscopy for Crohn's disease
NOD2 protein model with schematic diagram. Two N-terminal CARD domains (red) connected via helical linker (blue) with central NBD domain (green). At C-terminus LRR domain (cyan) is located. Additionally, some mutations which are associated with certain disease patterns in Crohn's disease are marked in red wire representation.
Distribution of gastrointestinal Crohn's disease.
Endoscopic image of Crohn's colitis showing deep ulceration
CT scan showing Crohn's disease in the fundus of the stomach
Endoscopic biopsy showing granulomatous inflammation of the colon in a case of Crohn's disease.
Section of colectomy showing transmural inflammation
Resected ileum from a person with Crohn's disease

Certain medications can also lower sperm count or otherwise adversely affect a man's fertility.