Fertility factor (demography)

A Norwegian family ca 1900, parents plus five children
A family of rural Africa
Graph of total fertility rate vs. GDP (PPP) per capita of the corresponding country, 2015.
Cumulative percentage and average age for women reaching subfertility, sterility, irregular menstruation and menopause.

Individual is likely to have.

- Fertility factor (demography)

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Catholic school

Catholic schools are pre-primary, primary and secondary educational institutions administered under the aegis or in association with the Catholic Church.

A sign for a Catholic school in Oxford, with the coat-of-arms of the Archdiocese of Birmingham and the logo of the Oxfordshire County Council.
École des Ursulines is a private Catholic school. Founded in 1639, it is one of the oldest active schools in North America
Delegates of the Quebec Conference of 1864. Retention of separate school boards with public funding was a major issue towards Canadian Confederation
École secondaire catholique Saint-Frère-André in Toronto is one of many publicly-funded French Catholic schools in the province of Ontario.
St. Thomas High School in Houston, Texas
Catholic Secondary College in Victoria Australia.
The Colegio de la Preciosa Sangre in Pichilemu, Chile

Catholic education has been identified as a positive fertility factor; Catholic education at the college level and, to a lesser degree, at secondary school level is associated with a higher number of children, even when accounting for the confounding effect that higher religiosity leads to a higher probability of attending religious education.


Arrangement where two people are not married but live together.

Percentage of births to unmarried women, selected countries, 1980 and 2007
Cohabitation is very common in Quebec. From 1995, the majority of births in Quebec are from unmarried couples.
Irish Magdalene Laundry, c. undefined early 1900s. Women who had sexual relations outside marriage were often sent to Magdalene laundries until the mid-20th century

Regarding cohabitation as a fertility factor, a large survey in the United States came to the result that married women had an average of 1.9 children, compared to 1.3 among those cohabiting.

Total fertility rate

Obtained by summing the single-year age-specific rates at a given time.

Map of countries by fertility rate (2020), according to the Population Reference Bureau
Total fertility rate for selected countries
A plot of population growth rate vs total fertility rate (logarithmic). Symbol radius reflect population size in each country
Total Fertility Rate vs Human Development Index for Selected Countries
Total fertility rate projections by region
Map of East Asia by total fertility rate (TFR) in 2020
Map of U.S. states by total fertility rate (TFR) in 2013.
History of US Total Fertility Rate from 1933 to 2016.
Map of East Asia by total fertility rate (TFR) in 2021

Fertility factors are determinants of the number of children that an individual is likely to have.

Nuclear family

Family group consisting of parents and their children , typically living in one home residence.

An American nuclear family composed of the mother, father, and their children circa 1955
From 1970 to 2000, family arrangements in the US became more diverse with no particular household arrangement prevalent enough to be identified as the "average"

As a fertility factor, single nuclear family households generally have a higher number of children than co-operative living arrangements according to studies from both the Western world and India.

Rural area

Geographic area that is located outside towns and cities.

The Barossa Valley in South Australia is an area noted for vineyards.
Rice terraces in Kami, Hyōgo Prefecture, Japan.
A rural landscape in Lappeenranta, South Karelia, Finland. 15 July 2000.
A rural landscape near Mount Shasta in California
A typical countryside scene in rural Yorkshire Dales, England.
A rural village in Rajasthan, India
Amra Kalan village in Kharian, Pakistan

Rural residence is a fertility factor, with total fertility rates and pregnancy being higher among women in rural areas than among women in urban areas and the rural population is much younger than urban areas.

Demographic transition

Phenomenon and theory which refers to the historical shift from high birth rates and high death rates in societies with minimal technology, education and economic development, to low birth rates and low death rates in societies with advanced technology, education and economic development, as well as the stages between these two scenarios.

Demographic transition overview, where "stage 5" is shown as unknown.
World population 10,000 BC-2017 AD
Population pyramid of Angola 2005
A major factor in reducing birth rates in stage 3 countries such as Malaysia is the availability of family planning facilities, like this one in Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia.
One such visualization of this effect may be approximated by these hypothetical population pyramids.
Demographic change in Germany, Sweden, Chile, Mauritius, China from 1820 to 2010.
Pink line: crude death rate (CDR), green line: (crude) birth rate (CBR), yellow line: population.

In stage three, birth rates fall due to various fertility factors such as access to contraception, increases in wages, urbanization, a reduction in subsistence agriculture, an increase in the status and education of women, a reduction in the value of children's work, an increase in parental investment in the education of children and other social changes. Population growth begins to level off. The birth rate decline in developed countries started in the late 19th century in northern Europe. While improvements in contraception do play a role in birth rate decline, contraceptives were not generally available nor widely used in the 19th century and as a result likely did not play a significant role in the decline then. It is important to note that birth rate decline is caused also by a transition in values; not just because of the availability of contraceptives.

Women in the workforce

Since the industrial revolution, participation of women in the workforce outside the home has increased in industrialized nations, with particularly large growth seen in the 20th century.

A woman employee demonstrates a hospital information management system in Tanzania.
Percent of women in the workforce among all women aged 20–64 years in the European Union in 2011
Proportion of women in senior and middle management positions (2017)
Women in informal employment as share of female employment in 2017
This chart depicts the change in the percentage of women in three professional occupations (dentist, physician, lawyer), from 1970 to 2007.
Attendees at a computer business networking event for potential entrepreneurs, United States
A woman press photographer covers a music fest, Poland, 2008
Japanese Prime Minister Shinzō Abe and First Daughter and Advisor to the former U.S. President Ivanka Trump attending the World Assembly for Women to discuss women's rights, Tokyo, 2017
An information technology networking social for potential entrepreneurs, New Delhi, India
Facebook COO Sheryl Sandberg at a townhall
What percentage of the US public approves of working wives
Maasai women at USAID literacy event
Governor of Bahia, Brazil, attending the first state women's business conference
Women operating a cabinet manufacturing business, India
Unemployment rate in women in 2017
An Egyptian Muslim woman who works in a men's hairdresser. She described to be "confront the customs and traditions of her society and conquer their criticism."
Mechanic working on a motorcycle, United States
In the United States, the "Rosie the Riveter" image, as it has become known, is an iconic representation of the US government's efforts to exhort women to work during World War II, and has been adapted numerous times to represent working women or, more broadly, women overcoming adversity and other proto-feminist messages.
Working at the Woolwich Arsenal, London, United Kingdom, 1918
Customer account operators working for a large photography firm, United States, 1945
A woman working as wait staff at a diner, United States, 1981
A news anchor going live on TV in Poland

A cross-country panel study found this fertility factor effect to be strongest among women aged 20–39, but with a less strong but persistent effect among older women as well.


Concept in sociology describing the tendency of individuals to associate and bond with similar others, as in the proverb "".

Ibn Khaldun statue in Tunis, Tunisia (1332–1406)

Homophily is a fertility factor; an increased fertility is seen in people with a tendency to seek acquaintance among those with common characteristics.

Fertility and intelligence

The relationship between fertility and intelligence has been investigated in many demographic studies.

Map of countries by fertility rate (2020), according to the Population Reference Bureau

Other correlates of IQ include income and educational attainment, which are also fertility factors that are inversely correlated with fertility rate, and are to some degree heritable.


Ideology that puts priority to family.

A woman at the Rally to Restore Sanity and/or Fear holding a sign that declares her ideas of family values

Regarding familism as a fertility factor, there is limited support among Hispanics of an increased number of children with increased familism in the sense of prioritizing the needs of the family higher than that of individuals.