The Cross of Mathilde, a crux gemmata made for Mathilde, Abbess of Essen (973–1011), who is shown kneeling before the Virgin and Child in the enamel plaque. The figure of Christ is slightly later. Probably made in Cologne or Essen, the cross demonstrates several medieval techniques: cast figurative sculpture, filigree, enamelling, gem polishing and setting, and the reuse of Classical cameos and engraved gems.
Investiture of a knight (miniature from the statutes of the Order of the Knot, founded in 1352 by Louis I of Naples).
A late Roman sculpture depicting the Tetrarchs, now in Venice, Italy
Orava Castle in Slovakia. A medieval castle is a traditional symbol of a feudal society.
Barbarian kingdoms and tribes after the end of the Western Roman Empire
Herr Reinmar von Zweter, a 13th-century Minnesinger, was depicted with his noble arms in Codex Manesse.
A coin of the Ostrogothic leader Theoderic the Great, struck in Milan, Italy, c. AD 491–501
Homage of Clermont-en-Beauvaisis
A mosaic showing Justinian with the bishop of Ravenna (Italy), bodyguards, and courtiers.
France in the late 15th century: a mosaic of feudal territories
Reconstruction of an early medieval peasant village in Bavaria
Depiction of socage on the royal demesne in feudal England, c. 1310
An 11th-century illustration of Gregory the Great dictating to a secretary
Map showing growth of Frankish power from 481 to 814
Charlemagne's palace chapel at Aachen, completed in 805
10th-century Ottonian ivory plaque depicting Christ receiving a church from Otto I
A page from the Book of Kells, an illuminated manuscript created in the British Isles in the late 8th or early 9th century
Medieval French manuscript illustration of the three classes of medieval society: those who prayed (the clergy) those who fought (the knights), and those who worked (the peasantry). The relationship between these classes was governed by feudalism and manorialism. (Li Livres dou Sante, 13th century)
13th-century illustration of a Jew (in pointed Jewish hat) and the Christian Petrus Alphonsi debating
Europe and the Mediterranean Sea in 1190
The Bayeux Tapestry (detail) showing William the Conqueror (centre), his half-brothers Robert, Count of Mortain (right) and Odo, Bishop of Bayeux in the Duchy of Normandy (left)
Krak des Chevaliers was built during the Crusades for the Knights Hospitallers.
A medieval scholar making precise measurements in a 14th-century manuscript illustration
Portrait of Cardinal Hugh of Saint-Cher by Tommaso da Modena, 1352, the first known depiction of spectacles
The Romanesque Church of Maria Laach, Germany
The Gothic interior of Laon Cathedral, France
Francis of Assisi, depicted by Bonaventura Berlinghieri in 1235, founded the Franciscan Order.
Sénanque Abbey, Gordes, France
Execution of some of the ringleaders of the jacquerie, from a 14th-century manuscript of the Chroniques de France ou de St Denis
Map of Europe in 1360
Joan of Arc in a 15th-century depiction
Guy of Boulogne crowning Pope Gregory XI in a 15th-century miniature from Froissart's Chroniques
Clerics studying astronomy and geometry, French, early 15th century
Agricultural calendar, c. 1470, from a manuscript of Pietro de Crescenzi
February scene from the 15th-century illuminated manuscript Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry
Medieval illustration of the spherical Earth in a 14th-century copy of L'Image du monde

Feudalism, also known as the feudal system, was the combination of the legal, economic, military, and cultural customs that flourished in medieval Europe between the 9th and 15th centuries.

- Feudalism

Manorialism, the organisation of peasants into villages that owed rent and labour services to the nobles, and feudalism, the political structure whereby knights and lower-status nobles owed military service to their overlords in return for the right to rent from lands and manors, were two of the ways society was organised in the High Middle Ages.

- Middle Ages
The Cross of Mathilde, a crux gemmata made for Mathilde, Abbess of Essen (973–1011), who is shown kneeling before the Virgin and Child in the enamel plaque. The figure of Christ is slightly later. Probably made in Cologne or Essen, the cross demonstrates several medieval techniques: cast figurative sculpture, filigree, enamelling, gem polishing and setting, and the reuse of Classical cameos and engraved gems.

6 related topics

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Ploughing on a French ducal manor in March from the manuscript, Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry, c.1410

Manorialism

Ploughing on a French ducal manor in March from the manuscript, Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry, c.1410
The great hall at Penshurst Place, Kent, built in the mid 14th century. The hall was of central importance to every manor, where the lord and his family ate, received guests, and conferred with dependents
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Generic map of a medieval manor. The mustard-colored areas are part of the demesne, the hatched areas part of the glebe. William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1923

Manorialism, also known as the manor system or manorial system, was the method of land ownership (or "tenure") in parts of Europe, notably England, during the Middle Ages.

Manorialism is sometimes included as part of the feudal system.

Galician slaughter in 1846 was a revolt against serfdom, directed against manorial property and oppression.

Serfdom

Galician slaughter in 1846 was a revolt against serfdom, directed against manorial property and oppression.
Costumes of slaves or serfs, from the sixth to the twelfth centuries, collected by H. de Vielcastel from original documents in European libraries
Punishment with a knout. Whipping was a common punishment for Russian serfs.
Reeve and serfs in feudal England, c. 1310

Serfdom was the status of many peasants under feudalism, specifically relating to manorialism, and similar systems.

This arrangement provided most of the agricultural labour throughout the Middle Ages.

Young women offer berries to visitors to their izba home, 1909. Those who had been serfs among the Russian peasantry were officially emancipated in 1861. Photograph by Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky.

Peasant

Young women offer berries to visitors to their izba home, 1909. Those who had been serfs among the Russian peasantry were officially emancipated in 1861. Photograph by Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky.
A farm in 1794
Finnish Savonian farmers at a cottage in early 19th century; by Pehr Hilleström and J. F. Martin
"Feiernde Bauern" ("Celebrating Peasants"), artist unknown, 18th or 19th century
Portrait sculpture of 18th-century French peasants by artist George S. Stuart, in the permanent collection of the Museum of Ventura County, Ventura, California
The Peasant Wedding, by Flemish painter Pieter Brueghel the Elder, 1567 or 1568
"Peasants in a Tavern" by Adriaen van Ostade (c. 1635), at the Alte Pinakothek, Munich
Monument dedicated to Serbian peasant, Jagodina

A peasant is a pre-industrial agricultural laborer or a farmer with limited land-ownership, especially one living in the Middle Ages under feudalism and paying rent, tax, fees, or services to a landlord. In Europe, three classes of peasants existed: slave, serf, and free tenant.

The House of Lords is the upper legislature of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and is filled with members that are selected from the nobility (both hereditary titleholders and those ennobled only for their individual lives).

Nobility

Social class found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy.

Social class found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy.

The House of Lords is the upper legislature of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and is filled with members that are selected from the nobility (both hereditary titleholders and those ennobled only for their individual lives).
Nobility offered protection in exchange for service
French aristocrats, c. 1774
A French political cartoon of the three orders of feudal society (1789). The rural third estate carries the clergy and the nobility.
Opening of the Hungarian Diet (Országgyűlés) with the members of hungarian nobility in the Royal Palace, 1865
Polish magnates 1576–1586
Polish magnates 1697–1795
Hungarian prince Ferenc József in the typical dress of the Hungarian nobility, 18th century
Count Carl Robert Mannerheim (1835–1914), a Finnish aristocrat, businessman, and the father of Baron C. G. E. Mannerheim, the Marshal of Finland
Russian boyars
The Battle of Tewkesbury in 1471. Large numbers of English nobility perished in the Wars of the Roses
A Maratha Durbar showing the Chief (Raja) and the nobles (Sardars, Jagirdars, Istamuradars & Mankaris) of the state.
Illustration of Nair nobles in 18th century Kerala, India. The Nair caste was a martial nobility, similar to the Samurai of Japan.
In Korea, royalty and yangban aristocrats were carried in litters called gama. A Korean gama, circa 1890.
An aristocratic family in Lhasa, Tibet in 1936.
Emperor Farrukhsiyar Bestows a Jewel on a Nobleman
Maratha Peshwa Madhavrao II, surrounded by nobles in his court in 18th-century India.
Japanese samurai, 1798
Typical costume of a family belonging to the Principalía of the late 19th century Philippines. Exhibit in the Villa Escudero Museum, San Pablo, Laguna.
Heraldic Crown of Hispanic Hidalgos.
A pre-colonial Tagalog couple belonging to the Datu class or nobility as depicted in the Boxer Codex of the 16th century.
Emperor Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia (center) and members of the imperial court
King Radama I of Madagascar was from the Andriana stratum of the Merina people.
The Emir of Kano, Muhammadu Sanusi II, on his throne in 2016.
Angélica Larrea, Queen Consort of the Afro-Bolivians, in 2012. The queen is the wife of King Julio Pinedo.
Portrait of Marquis of Paraná, Prime Minister of Brazil.
Regent of Bandung, Java, Dutch East Indies, with his pajung bearer – 1863–1865
Sons of Crown Prince Krom Loeang of Siam, Bangkok, 1862
A Siamese noble in a hammock, 1900
Burmese nobles and servants

In the feudal system (in Europe and elsewhere), the nobility were generally those who held a fief, often land or office, under vassalage, i.e., in exchange for allegiance and various, mainly military, services to a suzerain, who might be a higher-ranking nobleman or a monarch.

In the last years of the ancien régime the old nobility pushed for restrictions of certain offices and orders of chivalry to noblemen who could demonstrate that their lineage had extended "quarterings", i.e. several generations of noble ancestry, to be eligible for offices and favours at court along with nobles of medieval descent, although historians such as William Doyle have disputed this so-called "Aristocratic Reaction".

Flanders

Dutch-speaking northern portion of Belgium and one of the communities, regions and language areas of Belgium.

Dutch-speaking northern portion of Belgium and one of the communities, regions and language areas of Belgium.

A Flemish lady and gentleman in the year 1400, illustrated in the manuscript "Théâtre de tous les peuples et nations de la terre avec leurs habits et ornemens divers, tant anciens que modernes, diligemment depeints au naturel". Painted by Lucas d'Heere in the 2nd half of the 16th century. Preserved in the Ghent University Library.
The Sack of Antwerp in 1576, in which about 7,000 people died
Winter scene by Sebastian Vrancx, 1622
1609 map of the county of Flanders
Koksijde, a memorial to soldiers killed in World War I
Kris Peeters, former Minister-President of Flanders, promoting Flanders in Action
The Flemish Parliament
Border crossing sign near Menen.
The Sonian Forest
Provinces of Flanders
Brussels-Capital Region with the City of Brussels (one of 19 municipalities) in red
The Port of Antwerp is the second largest in Europe.
The A12 with a railway in the centre.
A church in Houthalen. A typical church, similar to those in many villages in Flanders
Arenberg Castle, part of the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, the oldest university in Belgium and the Low Countries.
Statue of Gezelle in Bruges, by sculptor Jules Lagae
Kim Clijsters was WTA Player of the Year in 2005 and 2010

The area of today's Flanders, by every definition, has figured prominently in European history since the Middle Ages.

The County of Flanders was a feudal fief in West Francia.

Kingdom of France

The Kingdom of France in 1000
Louis XIV, by Hyacinthe Rigaud, 1701
The Kingdom of France in 1000
Provinces in 1789
The Kingdom of France in 1000
Louis Philippe I by Franz Xaver Winterhalter (1841)
Western Francia during the time of Hugh Capet. The royal domain is shown in blue
The kingdom of France in 1030 (royal domain in light blue)
Territorial development under Philip August (Philip II), 1180–1223
The Reims Cathedral, built on the site where Clovis I was baptised by Remigius, functioned as the site for the coronation of the Kings of France.

The Kingdom of France (Royaume de France) is the historiographical name or umbrella term given to various political entities of France in the medieval and early modern period.

France in the Middle Ages was a de-centralised, feudal monarchy.