A report on FeverMalaria and Syphilis

An analog medical thermometer showing a temperature of 38.7 °C or 101.7 °F
Malaria parasite connecting to a red blood cell
Electron micrograph of Treponema pallidum
"The Sick Girl", 1882, Statens Museum for Kunst
Main symptoms of malaria
Primary chancre of syphilis at the site of infection on the penis
Michael Ancher, "The Sick Girl", 1882, Statens Museum for Kunst
The life cycle of malaria parasites. Sporozoites are introduced by a mosquito bite. They migrate to the liver, where they multiply into thousands of merozoites. The merozoites infect red blood cells and replicate, infecting more and more red blood cells. Some parasites form gametocytes, which are taken up by a mosquito, continuing the life cycle.
Typical presentation of secondary syphilis with a rash on the palms of the hands
Different fever patterns observed in Plasmodium infections
Micrograph of a placenta from a stillbirth due to maternal malaria. H&E stain. Red blood cells are anuclear; blue/black staining in bright red structures (red blood cells) indicate foreign nuclei from the parasites.
Reddish papules and nodules over much of the body due to secondary syphilis
Hyperthermia: Characterized on the left. Normal body temperature (thermoregulatory set point) is shown in green, while the hyperthermic temperature is shown in red. As can be seen, hyperthermia can be conceptualized as an increase above the thermoregulatory set point.
Hypothermia: Characterized in the center: Normal body temperature is shown in green, while the hypothermic temperature is shown in blue. As can be seen, hypothermia can be conceptualized as a decrease below the thermoregulatory set point.
Fever: Characterized on the right: Normal body temperature is shown in green. It reads "New Normal" because the thermoregulatory set point has risen. This has caused what was the normal body temperature (in blue) to be considered hypothermic.
Electron micrograph of a Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cell (center), illustrating adhesion protein "knobs"
Model of a head of a person with tertiary (gummatous) syphilis, Musée de l'Homme, Paris
The blood film is the gold standard for malaria diagnosis.
Histopathology of Treponema pallidum spirochetes using a modified Steiner silver stain
Ring-forms and gametocytes of Plasmodium falciparum in human blood
This poster acknowledges the social stigma of syphilis, while urging those who possibly have the disease to be tested (circa 1936).
An Anopheles stephensi mosquito shortly after obtaining blood from a human (the droplet of blood is expelled as a surplus). This mosquito is a vector of malaria, and mosquito control is an effective way of reducing its incidence.
Micrograph of secondary syphilis skin lesions. (A/B) H&E stain of SS lesions. (C/D) IHC staining reveals abundant spirochetes embedded within a mixed cellular inflammatory infiltrate (shown in the red box) in the papillary dermis. The blue arrow points to a tissue histiocyte and the read arrows to two dermal lymphocytes.
Man spraying kerosene oil in standing water, Panama Canal Zone, 1912
Portrait of Mr. J. Kay, affected with what is now believed to have been congenital syphilis c. 1820
Walls where indoor residual spraying of DDT has been applied. The mosquitoes remain on the wall until they fall down dead on the floor.
Jarisch–Herxheimer reaction in a person with syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus
A mosquito net in use.
Syphilis deaths per million persons in 2012
An advertisement for quinine as a malaria treatment from 1927.
Portrait of Gerard de Lairesse by Rembrandt van Rijn, circa 1665–67, oil on canvas. De Lairesse, himself a painter and art theorist, had congenital syphilis that deformed his face and eventually blinded him.
Deaths due to malaria per million persons in 2012
An early medical illustration of people with syphilis, Vienna, 1498
Past and current malaria prevalence in 2009
A Work Projects Administration poster about syphilis c. 1940
Ancient malaria oocysts preserved in Dominican amber
Preparation and Use of Guayaco for Treating Syphilis, after Stradanus, 1590
British doctor Ronald Ross received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1902 for his work on malaria.
Chinese medical researcher Tu Youyou received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 2015 for her work on the antimalarial drug artemisinin.
Artemisia annua, source of the antimalarial drug artemisinin
U.S. Marines with malaria in a field hospital on Guadalcanal, October 1942
Members of the Malaria Commission of the League of Nations collecting larvae on the Danube delta, 1929
1962 Pakistani postage stamp promoting malaria eradication program
Malaria clinic in Tanzania
Child with malaria in Ethiopia
World War II poster
Disability-adjusted life year for malaria per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004
no data

Malaria causes symptoms that typically include fever, tiredness, vomiting, and headaches.

- Malaria

This includes viral, bacterial, and parasitic infections—such as influenza, the common cold, meningitis, urinary tract infections, appendicitis, Lassa, COVID-19, and malaria.

- Fever

Other symptoms may include fever, sore throat, malaise, weight loss, hair loss, and headache.

- Syphilis

Infectious disease, e.g., COVID-19, dengue, Ebola, gastroenteritis, HIV, influenza, Lyme disease, rocky mountain spotted fever, secondary syphilis, malaria, mononucleosis, as well as infections of the skin, e.g., abscesses and boils.

- Fever

False positives can also occur with lymphoma, tuberculosis, malaria, endocarditis, connective tissue disease, and pregnancy.

- Syphilis

Plasmodium vivax was used between 1917 and the 1940s for malariotherapy—deliberate injection of malaria parasites to induce a fever to combat certain diseases such as tertiary syphilis.

- Malaria
An analog medical thermometer showing a temperature of 38.7 °C or 101.7 °F

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