Fiber-optic communication

fiber-opticfiber-optic networkfiber optic communicationfiberfiber optic communicationsoptical fiber communicationsfiber opticfibre-opticfiber opticsfiber-optic communications
Fiber-optic communication is a method of transmitting information from one place to another by sending pulses of light through an optical fiber.wikipedia
445 Related Articles

Optical fiber

fiber opticfiber opticsfibre optic
Fiber-optic communication is a method of transmitting information from one place to another by sending pulses of light through an optical fiber.
Optical fibers are used most often as a means to transmit light between the two ends of the fiber and find wide usage in fiber-optic communications, where they permit transmission over longer distances and at higher bandwidths (data rates) than electrical cables.

Telecommunication

telecommunicationscommunicationstelecom
First developed in the 1970s, fiber-optics have revolutionized the telecommunications industry and have played a major role in the advent of the Information Age.
20th- and 21st-century technologies for long-distance communication usually involve electrical and electromagnetic technologies, such as telegraph, telephone, and teleprinter, networks, radio, microwave transmission, fiber optics, and communications satellites.

Photophone

transmit sound
In 1880 Alexander Graham Bell and his assistant Charles Sumner Tainter created a very early precursor to fiber-optic communications, the Photophone, at Bell's newly established Volta Laboratory in Washington, D.C. Bell considered it his most important invention.
The photophone was a precursor to the fiber-optic communication systems that achieved worldwide popular usage starting in the 1980s.

Information Age

digital agedigital eracomputer age
First developed in the 1970s, fiber-optics have revolutionized the telecommunications industry and have played a major role in the advent of the Information Age.
Eventually, Information and Communication Technology—computers, computerized machinery, fiber optics, communication satellites, internet, and other ICT tools—became a significant part of the economy.

Laser diode

semiconductor laserdiode laserlaser diodes
Optical fiber was successfully developed in 1970 by Corning Glass Works, with attenuation low enough for communication purposes (about 20 dB/km) and at the same time GaAs semiconductor lasers were developed that were compact and therefore suitable for transmitting light through fiber optic cables for long distances.
Laser diodes are the most common type of lasers produced, with a wide range of uses that include fiber optic communications, barcode readers, laser pointers, CD/DVD/Blu-ray disc reading/recording, laser printing, laser scanning and light beam illumination.

Single-mode optical fiber

single-mode fibersingle-modeSMF
These early systems were initially limited by multi mode fiber dispersion, and in 1981 the single-mode fiber was revealed to greatly improve system performance, however practical connectors capable of working with single mode fiber proved difficult to develop. Two main types of optical fiber used in optic communications include multi-mode optical fibers and single-mode optical fibers.
In fiber-optic communication, a single-mode optical fiber (SMF) is an optical fiber designed to carry light only directly down the fiber - the transverse mode.

Volta Laboratory and Bureau

Volta LaboratoryVolta BureauVolta Laboratory Association
In 1880 Alexander Graham Bell and his assistant Charles Sumner Tainter created a very early precursor to fiber-optic communications, the Photophone, at Bell's newly established Volta Laboratory in Washington, D.C. Bell considered it his most important invention.
* the Photophone – an optical, wireless telephone, the precursor to fiber-optic communications (February 1880);

Telephone

phonetelephonesLocal Telephone Service
On June 3, 1880, Bell conducted the world's first wireless telephone transmission between two buildings, some 213 meters apart.
In modern telephone networks, fiber-optic cable and digital technology are often employed in such connections.

Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser

VCSELvertical cavity surface emitting laserVCSELs
Today, LEDs have been largely superseded by VCSEL (Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser) devices, which offer improved speed, power and spectral properties, at a similar cost.
VCSELs are used in various laser products, including computer mice, fiber optic communications, laser printers, Face ID, and smartglasses.

Alexander Graham Bell

BellGraham BellBell, Alexander Graham
In 1880 Alexander Graham Bell and his assistant Charles Sumner Tainter created a very early precursor to fiber-optic communications, the Photophone, at Bell's newly established Volta Laboratory in Washington, D.C. Bell considered it his most important invention.
The photophone was a precursor to the fiber-optic communication systems which achieved popular worldwide usage in the 1980s.

Indium gallium arsenide

InGaAsGaInAs(In)GaAs
This development was spurred by the discovery of Indium gallium arsenide and the development of the Indium Gallium Arsenide photodiode by Pearsall.
The bandgap energy at room temperature is 0.75 eV and lies between that of Ge and Si. By coincidence the bandgap of GaInAs is perfectly placed for photodetector and laser applications for the long-wavelength transmission window, (the C-band and L-band) for fiber-optic communications.

Optical modulator

optical modulatorsoptical modulatingPulse shapers
For very high data rates or very long distance links, a laser source may be operated continuous wave, and the light modulated by an external device, an optical modulator, such as an electro-absorption modulator or Mach–Zehnder interferometer.
For this reason light modulators are, e.g. in fiber optic communications, called external light modulators.

Wavelength-division multiplexing

wavelength division multiplexingWDMdense wavelength division multiplexing
The fourth generation of fiber-optic communication systems used optical amplification to reduce the need for repeaters and wavelength-division multiplexing to increase data capacity.
In fiber-optic communications, wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) is a technology which multiplexes a number of optical carrier signals onto a single optical fiber by using different wavelengths (i.e., colors) of laser light.

Laser

laserslaser beamlaser light
These are made by doping a length of fiber with the rare-earth mineral erbium and pumping it with light from a laser with a shorter wavelength than the communications signal (typically 980 nm).
Lasers are used in optical disk drives, laser printers, barcode scanners, DNA sequencing instruments, fiber-optic and free-space optical communication, laser surgery and skin treatments, cutting and welding materials, military and law enforcement devices for marking targets and measuring range and speed, and in laser lighting displays for entertainment.

Mach–Zehnder interferometer

Mach-ZehnderMach-Zehnder interferometersMach–Zehnder-Modulator
For very high data rates or very long distance links, a laser source may be operated continuous wave, and the light modulated by an external device, an optical modulator, such as an electro-absorption modulator or Mach–Zehnder interferometer.
Mach–Zehnder interferometers are used in electro-optic modulators, electronic devices used in various fiber-optic communication applications.

Electro-absorption modulator

electroabsorption modulator
For very high data rates or very long distance links, a laser source may be operated continuous wave, and the light modulated by an external device, an optical modulator, such as an electro-absorption modulator or Mach–Zehnder interferometer.
They can be operated at very high speed; a modulation bandwidth of tens of gigahertz can be achieved, which makes these devices useful for optical fiber communication.

Charles K. Kao

Charles KaoSir Charles KaoCharles Kuen Kao
In 1966 Charles K. Kao and George Hockham at STC Laboratories (STL) showed that the losses of 1,000 dB/km in existing glass (compared to 5–10 dB/km in coaxial cable) were due to contaminants which could potentially be removed.

Multi-mode optical fiber

multi-modemulti-mode fibermultimode
Two main types of optical fiber used in optic communications include multi-mode optical fibers and single-mode optical fibers.
However, compared to single-mode fibers, the multi-mode fiber bandwidth–distance product limit is lower.

Dispersion (optics)

dispersiondispersivechromatic dispersion
Engineers overcame earlier difficulties with pulse-spreading at that wavelength using conventional InGaAsP semiconductor lasers.
For example, in fiber optics the material and waveguide dispersion can effectively cancel each other out to produce a zero-dispersion wavelength, important for fast fiber-optic communication.

Spatial multiplexing

multiple data streamsspatial demultiplexingSpatial multiplex coding
The 2018 NICT result is notable for breaking the record for throughput using a single core cable, that is, not using spatial multiplexing.
Spatial multiplexing (often abbreviated SM or SMX) is a transmission technique in MIMO wireless communication, Fibre-optic communication and other communications technologies to transmit independent and separately encoded data signals, known as "streams". Therefore, the space dimension is reused, or multiplexed, more than one time.

Optical communications repeater

optical repeaterrepeater3R (optical regenerator)
When a communications link must span a larger distance than existing fiber-optic technology is capable of, the signal must be regenerated at intermediate points in the link by optical communications repeaters.
An optical communications repeater is used in a fiber-optic communications system to regenerate an optical signal.

AT&T U-verse

U-verseAT&TAT&T U-verse TV
Companies such as Verizon and AT&T have taken advantage of fiber-optic communications to deliver a variety of high-throughput data and broadband services to consumers' homes.
In the more common FTTN deployment, fiber-optic connections carry all data (internet, IPTV, and voice over IP) between the service provider and a distribution node.

Continuous wave

CWcontinuous-wavecontinuous-wave operation
For very high data rates or very long distance links, a laser source may be operated continuous wave, and the light modulated by an external device, an optical modulator, such as an electro-absorption modulator or Mach–Zehnder interferometer.
It led directly to the light sources in fiber-optic communication, laser printers, barcode readers, and optical disc drives, commercialized by Japanese entrepreneurs, and opened up the field of optical communication, playing an important role in future communication networks.

Verizon Fios

FiOSFiOS TVVerizon
Companies such as Verizon and AT&T have taken advantage of fiber-optic communications to deliver a variety of high-throughput data and broadband services to consumers' homes.
Verizon aimed to replace copper wires with optical fibers, which would allow greater speed and quality of communication.

Dark fibre

dark fiberdark fiber networkdark fibre network
Dark fiber
A dark fibre or unlit fibre is an unused optical fibre, available for use in fibre-optic communication.