Fibromuscular dysplasia

Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a non-atherosclerotic, non-inflammatory disease of the blood vessels that causes abnormal growth within the wall of an artery.wikipedia
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Stroke

strokesischemic strokecerebrovascular accident
Complications of cerebrovascular FMD include TIA, ischemic stroke, Horner syndrome, or subarachnoid hemorrhage.
Large vessel disease involves the common and internal carotid arteries, the vertebral artery, and the Circle of Willis. Diseases that may form thrombi in the large vessels include (in descending incidence): atherosclerosis, vasoconstriction (tightening of the artery), aortic, carotid or vertebral artery dissection, various inflammatory diseases of the blood vessel wall (Takayasu arteritis, giant cell arteritis, vasculitis), noninflammatory vasculopathy, Moyamoya disease and fibromuscular dysplasia.

Hypertension

high blood pressurehypertensivearterial hypertension
Even though FMD is a non-atherosclerotic disease family histories of hypertension and hyperlipidemia were also common among those diagnosed with FMD.
Hypertension can also be caused by endocrine conditions, such as Cushing's syndrome, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, acromegaly, Conn's syndrome or hyperaldosteronism, renal artery stenosis (from atherosclerosis or fibromuscular dysplasia), hyperparathyroidism, and pheochromocytoma.

Bruit

bruitsarterial bruitshumming noise
The main symptoms associated with renal FMD are secondary hypertension and bruits that can be heard with a stethoscope over the abdomen or flanks.
Fibromuscular dysplasia

Renal artery stenosis

renal artery obstructionkidney arteriesnarrowing of the renal artery
In cases of renal stenosis and indications for intervention, percutaneous balloon angioplasty may be recommended.
Renal artery stenosis is the narrowing of one of the renal arteries, most often caused by atherosclerosis or fibromuscular dysplasia.

Ex vivo reconstruction

Ex vivo renal artery reconstruction
Ex vivo renal artery reconstruction is sometimes used for complex diseases where branches of the renal artery are affected.
Ex vivo reconstruction, short for ex vivo renal artery reconstruction and autotransplantation, is a technique mainly used for complex disease involving multiple segmental branches in patients with fibromuscular dysplasia.

Moyamoya disease

moyamoya
There have been isolated reports of FMD associated with other disorders, including Alport syndrome, pheochromocytoma, Marfan syndrome, Moyamoya disease, and Takayasu's arteritis.
Patients with Down syndrome, sickle cell anemia, neurofibromatosis type 1, congenital heart disease, fibromuscular dysplasia, activated protein C resistance, or head trauma can develop moyamoya malformations.

Atherosclerosis

atheroscleroticatherogenesisatherosclerotic plaques
Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a non-atherosclerotic, non-inflammatory disease of the blood vessels that causes abnormal growth within the wall of an artery.

Vascular disease

vascular diseasesvasculardisease of the blood vessels
Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a non-atherosclerotic, non-inflammatory disease of the blood vessels that causes abnormal growth within the wall of an artery.

Artery

arteriesarterialarterial system
Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a non-atherosclerotic, non-inflammatory disease of the blood vessels that causes abnormal growth within the wall of an artery.

Common carotid artery

carotidcarotid arteriescarotid artery
FMD has been found in nearly every arterial bed in the body although the most common arteries affected are the renal and carotid arteries.

Secondary hypertension

secondarysecondary high blood pressure
The main symptoms associated with renal FMD are secondary hypertension and bruits that can be heard with a stethoscope over the abdomen or flanks.

Stethoscope

stethoscopesbell of the stethoscopeelectronic stethoscope
The main symptoms associated with renal FMD are secondary hypertension and bruits that can be heard with a stethoscope over the abdomen or flanks.

Internal carotid artery

internal carotid arteriesinternal carotidinternal
Middle and distal regions of the internal carotid arteries are frequently involved.

Migraine

migrainesmigraine headachemigraine headaches
Symptoms of craniocervical involvement include headaches (mostly migraine), pulsatile tinnitus, dizziness, and neck pain, although patients are often asymptomatic.

Tinnitus

ringing in the earspulsatile tinnitusringing
Symptoms of craniocervical involvement include headaches (mostly migraine), pulsatile tinnitus, dizziness, and neck pain, although patients are often asymptomatic.

Dizziness

dizzygiddinessdizzines
Symptoms of craniocervical involvement include headaches (mostly migraine), pulsatile tinnitus, dizziness, and neck pain, although patients are often asymptomatic.

Transient ischemic attack

transient ischaemic attacktransient ischemic attacksmini-stroke
On physical examination, one may detect neurological symptoms secondary to a stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA), a bruit over an affected artery, and diminished distal pulses.

Horner's syndrome

horner syndromeHorner’s syndromeBernard syndrome
Complications of cerebrovascular FMD include TIA, ischemic stroke, Horner syndrome, or subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Subarachnoid hemorrhage

subarachnoid haemorrhagesubarachnoidsubarachnoid hemorrhage, traumatic
Complications of cerebrovascular FMD include TIA, ischemic stroke, Horner syndrome, or subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Embolism

emboliemboluscerebral embolism
If the lower limb arteries are affected, the patient may present with cold legs or evidence of distal embolic disease.

Subclavian artery

subclavian arteriesleft subclavian arterysubclavian
FMD present in the subclavian artery may cause arm weakness, parenthesis, claudication, and subclavial steal syndrome.

Insomnia

sleeplessnesstrouble sleepingdifficulty sleeping
Symptoms may include headaches, insomnia, fatigue and chest or abdominal pain.

Kidney failure

renal failurekidney problemsrenal impairment
Kidney failure is a common presentation in infants and children but is uncommon in adults, although it is occasionally the presenting problem in adults with focal disease.

Genetic predisposition

predispositiongenetically predisposedpredispose
While the cause of FMD remains unclear, current theory suggest that there may be a genetic predisposition as case reports have identified clusters of the disease and prevalence among twins.

Cleveland Clinic

Cleveland Clinic Foundationthe Cleveland ClinicLutheran Hospital
In fact, according to the Cleveland Clinic approximately 10% of cases appear to be inherited and often coexists with other genetic abnormalities that affect the blood vessels.