A report on Fibromyalgia

The location of the 19 pain areas for the Widespread Pain Index of fibromyalgia
A woman feeling stress
The location of the nine paired tender points that comprise the 1990 American College of Rheumatology criteria for fibromyalgia
Widespread pain index (WPI) areas
Stress and trauma are strongly linked to fibromyalgia

Medical condition defined by the presence of chronic widespread pain, fatigue, waking unrefreshed, cognitive symptoms, lower abdominal pain or cramps, and depression.

- Fibromyalgia
The location of the 19 pain areas for the Widespread Pain Index of fibromyalgia

40 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Duloxetine, an example of an SNRI.

Serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor

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Duloxetine, an example of an SNRI.
Timeline of approved SNRIs.
Timeline of development of antidepressant agents.
Inhibiting the reuptake transport protein results in increased concentrations of serotonin and norepinephrine in the synaptic clefts, leading to improvement of depression symptoms.
Aryloxypropanamine scaffold and agents containing it.
Cycloalkanol ethylamine scaffold and agents containing it.
Structure of milnacipran.

Serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are a class of antidepressant drugs used to treat major depressive disorder (MDD), anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), social phobia, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), chronic neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), and menopausal symptoms.

Chemical structure of the prototypical and first marketed tricyclic antidepressant imipramine. Notice its three rings.

Tricyclic antidepressant

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Important for the management of depression.

Important for the management of depression.

Chemical structure of the prototypical and first marketed tricyclic antidepressant imipramine. Notice its three rings.
Chemical structure of the prototypical and first marketed tricyclic antidepressant imipramine. Notice its three rings.

They are also used in the treatment of a number of other medical disorders, including cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS) and anxiety disorders such as generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social phobia (SP) also known as social anxiety disorder (SAD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and panic disorder (PD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), eating disorders like anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, certain personality disorders such as borderline personality disorder (BPD), neurological disorders such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Parkinson's disease as well as chronic pain, neuralgia or neuropathic pain, and fibromyalgia, headache, or migraine, smoking cessation, tourette syndrome, trichotillomania, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), interstitial cystitis (IC), nocturnal enuresis (NE), narcolepsy, insomnia, pathological crying and/or laughing, chronic hiccups, ciguatera poisoning, and as an adjunct in schizophrenia.

Long meetings can often be a source of exhaustion, as evidenced by Lyndon B. Johnson in this photograph.

Fatigue

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Fatigue describes a state of tiredness that does not resolve with rest or sleep.

Fatigue describes a state of tiredness that does not resolve with rest or sleep.

Long meetings can often be a source of exhaustion, as evidenced by Lyndon B. Johnson in this photograph.
Minor dark circles, in addition to a hint of eye bags, a combination which is suggestive of sleep deprivation and/or mental fatigue.

Fatigue can be a feature of a mental disorder such as depression; may be associated with conditions of chronic pain such as fibromyalgia; it may also feature in conditions of chronic low-level inflammation, and be a disease-related symptom in many other conditions.

Gate control theory of pain

Neuropathic pain

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Pain caused by damage or disease affecting the somatosensory system.

Pain caused by damage or disease affecting the somatosensory system.

Gate control theory of pain
Microglia (identified by alpha-coronin1a), and neurons in culture. Microglia are proposed to release molecules that alter the excitability of neurons.

Gabapentin may reduce symptoms associated with neuropathic pain or fibromyalgia in some people.

Chemical structure of morphine, the prototypical opioid.

Opioid

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Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.

Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.

Chemical structure of morphine, the prototypical opioid.
US. Top line represents the number of benzodiazepine deaths that also involved opioids. Bottom line represents benzodiazepine deaths that did not involve opioids.
Locants of the morphine molecule
INTA: selective agonist of KOR-DOR and KOR-MOR heteromers. Does not recruit β-arrestin II. Antinociceptive devoid of aversion, tolerance, and dependence in mice.
A sample of raw opium
US yearly deaths from all opioid drugs. Included in this number are opioid analgesics, along with heroin and illicit .<ref name=NIDA-deaths/>
US yearly deaths involving other, predominately Fentanyl.<ref name=NIDA-deaths/>
US yearly deaths involving prescription opioids. is a category dominated by illegally acquired fentanyl, and has been excluded.<ref name=NIDA-deaths>Overdose Death Rates. By National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA).</ref>
US yearly overdose deaths involving heroin.<ref name=NIDA-deaths/>

Guidelines have suggested that the risk of opioids is likely greater than their benefits when used for most non-cancer chronic conditions including headaches, back pain, and fibromyalgia.

Drawing of the pain of IBS

Irritable bowel syndrome

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Functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by a group of symptoms accompanied together that include abdominal pain and changes in the consistency of bowel movements.

Functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by a group of symptoms accompanied together that include abdominal pain and changes in the consistency of bowel movements.

Drawing of the pain of IBS
Prevalence of protozoal infections in industrialized countries (United States and Canada) in the 21st century
Percentage of population with IBS reported in various studies in different countries (see sources in the table)

People with IBS, more commonly than others, have gastroesophageal reflux, symptoms relating to the genitourinary system, fibromyalgia, headache, backache, and psychiatric symptoms such as depression and anxiety.

Chart of the symptoms of CFS according to various definitions

Chronic fatigue syndrome

5 links

Complex, debilitating, long-term medical condition.

Complex, debilitating, long-term medical condition.

Chart of the symptoms of CFS according to various definitions
Brain imaging, comparing adolescents with CFS and healthy controls showing abnormal network activity in regions of the brain.
Presentation of a petition to the National Assembly for Wales relating to ME support in South East Wales
Incidence rates by age and sex, from a 2014 study in Norway

Tentative evidence suggests a relationship between autonomic nervous system dysfunction and diseases such as CFS, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, and interstitial cystitis.

Cymbalta (duloxetine) 60mg

Duloxetine

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Cymbalta (duloxetine) 60mg

Duloxetine, sold under the brand name Cymbalta among others, is a medication used to treat major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, fibromyalgia, neuropathic pain and central sensitization.

Box of 150 mg Lyrica (pregabalin) capsules from Finland

Pregabalin

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Box of 150 mg Lyrica (pregabalin) capsules from Finland
Pregabalin is not a GABAA or GABAB receptor agonist.
Chemical structures of GABA, pregabalin and two other gabapentinoids, gabapentin and phenibut.

Pregabalin, sold under the brand name Lyrica among others, is an anticonvulsant and anxiolytic medication used to treat epilepsy, neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia, restless leg syndrome, opioid withdrawal and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).

The skeleton structure of the SNRI venlafaxine, a typical example of an antidepressant.

Antidepressant

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Antidepressants are medications used to treat major depressive disorder, some anxiety disorders, some chronic pain conditions, and to help manage some addictions.

Antidepressants are medications used to treat major depressive disorder, some anxiety disorders, some chronic pain conditions, and to help manage some addictions.

The skeleton structure of the SNRI venlafaxine, a typical example of an antidepressant.
The skeleton structure of the SNRI venlafaxine, a typical example of an antidepressant.
Blister pack of Prozac (fluoxetine), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor
The chemical structure of venlafaxine (Effexor), an SNRI
St John's wort
Structural formula of the SSRI sertraline

A 2012 meta-analysis concluded that antidepressants treatment favorably affects pain, health-related quality of life, depression, and sleep in fibromyalgia syndrome.