Fibromyalgia

fibrositisFibromyalgia syndromemuscular rheumatism Fibromyalgia SyndromeFibromyalgia (FM)Fibromyositishealth problemstender points
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a medical condition characterized by chronic widespread pain and a heightened pain response to pressure.wikipedia
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Interstitial cystitis

Bladder pain syndromeneuromyopathyInterstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome
Some people also report restless legs syndrome, bowel or bladder problems, numbness and tingling and sensitivity to noise, lights or temperature.
Many of those affected also have irritable bowel syndrome and fibromyalgia.

Allodynia

antiallodynicabnormal pain sensationsallodynic
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a medical condition characterized by chronic widespread pain and a heightened pain response to pressure.
Allodynia is a clinical feature of many painful conditions, such as neuropathies, complex regional pain syndrome, postherpetic neuralgia, fibromyalgia, and migraine.

Duloxetine

Cymbalta
The medications duloxetine, milnacipran or pregabalin may be used.
Duloxetine, sold under the brand name Cymbalta among others, is a medication used to treat major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, fibromyalgia, and neuropathic pain.

Pregabalin

Lyrica
The medications duloxetine, milnacipran or pregabalin may be used.
Pregabalin, marketed under the brand name Lyrica among others, is a medication used to treat epilepsy, neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia, restless leg syndrome, and generalized anxiety disorder.

Milnacipran

Savella
The medications duloxetine, milnacipran or pregabalin may be used.
Milnacipran (trade names Ixel, Savella, Dalcipran, Toledomin) is a serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) used in the clinical treatment of fibromyalgia.

Opioid

opioidsopioid-induced constipationopioid analgesic
Use of opioid pain medication is controversial, with some stating their usefulness is poorly supported by evidence and others saying that weak opioids may be reasonable if other medications are not effective.
Guidelines have suggested that the risk of opioids is likely greater than their benefits when used for most non-cancer chronic conditions including headaches, back pain, and fibromyalgia.

Functional somatic syndrome

The International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) lists fibromyalgia as a diagnosable disease under "Diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue," under the code M79-7, and states that fibromyalgia syndrome should be classified as a functional somatic syndrome rather than a mental disorder.
It encompass disorders such as chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, chronic widespread pain, temporomandibular disorder, irritable bowel syndrome, lower back pain, tension headache, atypical face pain, non-cardiac chest pain, insomnia, palpitation, dyspepsia, and dizziness.

Irritable bowel syndrome

IBSSplenic flexure syndromeSplenic-flexure syndrome
Some people also report restless legs syndrome, bowel or bladder problems, numbness and tingling and sensitivity to noise, lights or temperature. Although mental disorders and some physical disorders are commonly co-morbid with fibromyalgia – especially anxiety, depression, irritable bowel syndrome, and chronic fatigue syndrome – the ICD states that these should be diagnosed separately.
People with IBS, more commonly than others, have gastroesophageal reflux, symptoms relating to the genitourinary system, chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, headache, backache, and psychiatric symptoms such as depression and anxiety.

Rheumatoid arthritis

rheumatoidrheumatic arthritisarthritis, rheumatoid
20–30% of people with rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus may also have fibromyalgia. Certain systemic, inflammatory, endocrine, rheumatic, infectious, and neurologic disorders may cause fibromyalgia-like symptoms, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren syndrome, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, hypothyroidism, ankylosing spondylitis, polymyalgia rheumatica, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic-related polyenthesitis, hepatitis C, peripheral neuropathies, a nerve compression syndrome (such as carpal tunnel syndrome), multiple sclerosis and myasthenia gravis.
Other diseases that may present similarly include systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriatic arthritis, and fibromyalgia among others.

Chronic fatigue syndrome

myalgic encephalomyelitisMEME/CFS
Although mental disorders and some physical disorders are commonly co-morbid with fibromyalgia – especially anxiety, depression, irritable bowel syndrome, and chronic fatigue syndrome – the ICD states that these should be diagnosed separately.
Tentative evidence suggests a relationship between autonomic nervous system dysfunction and diseases such as CFS, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, and interstitial cystitis.

Fatigue

exhaustionOverexertiontiredness
Other symptoms include tiredness to a degree that normal activities are affected, sleep problems and troubles with memory.

Temporomandibular joint dysfunction

temporomandibular joint disordertemporomandibular disorderTemporomandibular joint syndrome
Many sufferers also experience varying degrees of myofascial pain and have high rates of comorbid temporomandibular joint dysfunction.
It is hypothesized that there is a great deal of similarity between TMD and other pain syndromes like fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, interstitial cystitis, headache, chronic lower back pain and chronic neck pain.

Pain

physical painacute painnociceptive pain
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a medical condition characterized by chronic widespread pain and a heightened pain response to pressure.
This applies, for example, to fibromyalgia patients.

Non-celiac gluten sensitivity

gluten sensitivitynon-coeliac gluten sensitivitygluten sensitive
Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) may be an underlying cause of fibromyalgia symptoms but further research is needed. Certain systemic, inflammatory, endocrine, rheumatic, infectious, and neurologic disorders may cause fibromyalgia-like symptoms, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren syndrome, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, hypothyroidism, ankylosing spondylitis, polymyalgia rheumatica, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic-related polyenthesitis, hepatitis C, peripheral neuropathies, a nerve compression syndrome (such as carpal tunnel syndrome), multiple sclerosis and myasthenia gravis.
As of 2019, reviews have concluded that although FODMAPs may play a role in NCGS, they only explain certain gastrointestinal symptoms, such as bloating, but not the extra-digestive symptoms that people with NCGS may develop, such as neurological disorders, fibromyalgia, psychological disturbances, and dermatitis.

Antidepressant

antidepressantsanti-depressantanti-depressants
Supporting the monoamine related theories is the efficacy of monoaminergic antidepressants in fibromyalgia.
A 2012 meta-analysis concluded that antidepressants treatment favorably affects pain, health-related quality of life, depression, and sleep in fibromyalgia syndrome.

Paresthesia

paraesthesiatinglingparesthesias
Some people also report restless legs syndrome, bowel or bladder problems, numbness and tingling and sensitivity to noise, lights or temperature.

Medically unexplained physical symptoms

medically unexplained symptomsmedically unexplainedmedically unexplained symptom
As with many other medically unexplained syndromes, there is no universally accepted treatment or cure for fibromyalgia, and treatment typically consists of symptom management.
The term MUPS can also be used to refer to syndromes whose etiology remains contested, including chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, multiple chemical sensitivity and Gulf War illness.

Amitriptyline

Elavilamitriptyline hydrochlorideamitryptiline
A small number of people benefit significantly from the SNRIs duloxetine and milnacipran and the tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), such as amitriptyline.
Other uses include prevention of migraines, treatment of neuropathic pain such as fibromyalgia and postherpetic neuralgia, and less commonly insomnia.

Sjögren syndrome

Sjögren's syndromeSjogren's syndromeSjogren syndrome
Certain systemic, inflammatory, endocrine, rheumatic, infectious, and neurologic disorders may cause fibromyalgia-like symptoms, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren syndrome, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, hypothyroidism, ankylosing spondylitis, polymyalgia rheumatica, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic-related polyenthesitis, hepatitis C, peripheral neuropathies, a nerve compression syndrome (such as carpal tunnel syndrome), multiple sclerosis and myasthenia gravis.
SS is associated with a number of other medical conditions, many of which are autoimmune or rheumatic disorders, such as celiac disease, fibromyalgia, SLE (lupus), autoimmune thyroiditis, multiple sclerosis and spondyloarthropathy, and several malignancies, principally non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Stress (biology)

stressenvironmental stressemotional stress
Stress may be an important precipitating factor in the development of fibromyalgia.
Stress may contribute to various disorders, such as fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, depression, and functional somatic syndromes.

Tricyclic antidepressant

tricyclic antidepressantsTCAsTCA
A small number of people benefit significantly from the SNRIs duloxetine and milnacipran and the tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), such as amitriptyline.
They are also used in the treatment of a number of other medical disorders, including anxiety disorders such as generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social phobia (SP) also known as social anxiety disorder (SAD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and panic disorder (PD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), eating disorders like anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, certain personality disorders such as borderline personality disorder (BPD), neurological disorders such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Parkinson's disease as well as chronic pain, neuralgia or neuropathic pain, and fibromyalgia, headache, or migraine, smoking cessation, tourette syndrome, trichotillomania, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), interstitial cystitis (IC), nocturnal enuresis (NE), narcolepsy, insomnia, pathological crying and/or laughing, chronic hiccups, ciguatera poisoning, and as an adjunct in schizophrenia.

Tramadol

UltramUltracetUltram ER
The European League Against Rheumatism in 2008 recommends tramadol and other weak opioids may be used for pain but not strong opioids.
As of 2015, tramadol was not approved in the United States for fibromyalgia.

Cyclobenzaprine

FlexerilAmrix
The muscle relaxants cyclobenzaprine, carisoprodol with acetaminophen and caffeine and tizanidine are sometimes used to treat fibromyalgia; however as of 2015 they are not approved for this use in the United States.
A 2004 review found benefit for fibromyalgia symptoms, with a reported number needed to treat of 4.8 (meaning that 1 person out of every 4.8 benefits from treatment) for pain reduction, but no change in fatigue or tender points.

Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis

hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axisHPA axishypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal
Some authors have proposed that, because exposure to stressful conditions can alter the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the development of fibromyalgia may stem from stress-induced disruption of the HPA axis.
The HPA axis is involved in the neurobiology of mood disorders and functional illnesses, including anxiety disorder, bipolar disorder, insomnia, posttraumatic stress disorder, borderline personality disorder, ADHD, major depressive disorder, burnout, chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, and alcoholism.

Moclobemide

Aurorix
Tentative evidence suggests that monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) such as pirlindole and moclobemide are moderately effective for reducing pain.